Sport as a factor of national identity formation in a mass society
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Sport as a factor of national identity formation in a mass society. Janez Štebe, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences E-mail:[email protected] Paper presentation at. Research Question. What is a role of national pride in sport on national identity?

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Sport as a factor of national identity formation in a mass society

Sport as a factor of national identity formation in a mass society

Janez Štebe, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences

E-mail:[email protected]

Paper presentation at


Research question

Research Question

  • What is a role of national pride in sport on national identity?

    What follows is exploratory analysis of quantitative survey data comparing European countries with a special emphasis on East / West divide.


Sport as a factor of national identity formation in a mass society

Data:

  • ISSP (International Social Survey Programm)1995 and 2003 National Identity I and II

  • High quality surveys on national random samples of adult population

  • Special emphasis on procedural equivalence of measurements (careful translation of questionnaire, pre-tests)

  • Data and documentation available form national data archives, e.g. Slovene Social Sciences Data Archives

    http://www.adp.fdv.uni-lj.si/


Concepts definitions

Concepts definitions

  • National identity

    • Civic

    • Ethnic

  • Pride

  • Xenophobia


National citizens identity construct

National citizens identity construct:

A measure of legitimacy of institutional and political order: in a long run at list some degree of identification and share of positive orientation to political system is needed for its democratic functioning

Identity through feeling of attachment, trust to others, political regime support as forms of social capital that members of society share with one another.

In a mass society social capital is often based on impersonal ties (mechanical solidarity), a contested terrain of symbolic construction, “imagined communities”


Identity is a relational concept

Identity is a relational concept:

  • How do we see ourselves through others by setting boundaries – rejecting and accepting others as members of social entities

  • Related problems: national identity

    • and globalisation

    • And patriotism vs. Nationalism

    • And xenophobia

  • Operationalised thru indicator in ISSP95 and ISSP2003 Questionnaire:


Two dimensions of national identity see hjerm schulman etc

Ascribed

Ethnic or cultural identity

Shared ethnicity, language, religion

Exploratory factor separate country analysis shows that item a) “to have been born in a [COUNTRY]” consistently loads on that dimension

Achieved

Civic identity:

Equal political rights and obligations

Factor analysis shows that item f= “respect [COUNTRY] political institutions and laws” consistently loads that dimension

Two dimensions of national identity (see Hjerm, Schulman, etc.)

  • Both items partialy represents separate dimensions in a comparative setting, besides a common general national identity

  • Possess fixed meaning granting face validity

  • Unknown reliability


National pride

National pride

  • “is the positive affect that the public feels towards their country, resulting from their national identity” (Smith&Kim 2006)

  • Related but not identical to national identity

  • Multidimensional

    • Can be used as mean for comparative analysis of content of national identity components

  • Operationalised thru indicator in ISSP95 and ISSP2003 Questionnaire:


Sport as a factor of national identity formation in a mass society

Cultural

G) Arts and literature

I) History

Reliability coefficient Cronbach α ranges from 0.3 (Germany – East and Austria in 2003) to 0.7 (Russia and Slovakia in 1995) with an average in 0.5

Civic

A) the way democracy works

C) [COUNTRY’s] economic achievements

D) its social security system

More stable Cronbach α -ranges from 0.7 to 0.8

Exploratory factor separate country analysis shows two dimensions of pride consistently represented by the following sets of items:

Where is pride in sports?


Pride in sport

Pride in sport

  • Complex of modern medialised sport – glorification of human body and short attention spans – offer good material for national feelings based on mechanical solidarity (Evans&Kelley 2002)

  • Measured by additive index of pride in sport item (“achievements in sports”) and the following “makes me proud item”

  • Reliability coefficient Cronbach α ranges from 0.3 (Poland 2003) to 0.7 with an average in 0.6


Correlations between pride in sports with cultural and civic components of national pride

0,60

0,60

0,55

0,55

0,50

0,50

0,45

DE-W95

0,45

0,40

ES03

National civic pride

0,40

0,35

NO95

E1995W

National civic pride

GB95

0,35

0,30

PL95

E2000W

SK95

GB03

DE-E95

0,30

AT03

0,25

AT95

IE95

E1995E

DE-E03

ES95

LV95

SI03

0,25

DE-W03

0,20

NO03

IE03

SE95

0,20

CZ95

E2000E

0,15

LV03

PL03

SI95

SE03

0,15

SK03

RU95

RU03

0,10

0,10

0,10

0,20

0,30

0,40

0,50

0,60

0,10

0,20

0,30

0,40

0,50

0,60

National cultural pride

National cultural pride

Correlations between pride in sports with cultural and civic components of national pride


Xenophobia

Xenophobia

  • How are various aspects of national identity and pride related to xenophobia

  • Establishment of democratic regimes may lag behind by extreme nationalist and xenophobic feelings kin Eastern post communist Europe (Wallace 1999)

  • Sport and xenophobia, are they reinforcing one another and interplay in national identity formation

  • Measure of additive index with reliability α = 0.6 to 0.8 with an average in 0.7

  • Items:


Results correlation of pride in sports with ethic and civic identity by country by year source issp

0,45

0,40

0,35

ES95

0,30

DE-E95

GB03

LV95

GB95

AT95

0,25

ES03

PL95

Civic nat. identity: Respect

PL03

DE-W95

SE03

SI95

0,20

IE03

CZ95

SE95

AT03

NO03

DE-W03

LV03

NO95

RU95

SK95

IE95

SI03

0,15

RU03

DE-E03

CZ03

HU95

SK03

0,10

HU03

0,05

0,00

-0,05

0,05

0,15

0,25

0,35

0,45

Ethnic national identity: Born

Results: Correlation of Pride in sports with Ethic and Civic identity by Country by Year (Source: ISSP)

Eastern Europe

Western Europe


Correlation of pride in sports with other variables by east west europe by year source issp

Correlation of Pride in sports with other variables by East/West Europe by Year (Source: ISSP)

East Europe

West Europe


Ethnic born civic respect national identity by year by east west europe

Ethnic(Born)/Civic(Respect) national identity by Year by East/West Europe

Legend: BO (Ethnic id – Born); RE (Civic id – Respect); W (Western Europe); E (Eastern Europe)


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Pride in sports remains an important correlate of national identity

  • It is closer to cultural component of pride

  • Important differences between East/ West Europe on sport and Xenophobia related Ethnic identity

  • Further inquiry into contextual factors that shape national identity formation (changes in government, economic situation, globalisation etc.)


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