Ch. 9 Learning: Principles and Applications. http://www.sangrea.net/free-cartoons/phil_joy-of-learning.jpg. How do we learn?. Most learning is associative learning Learning that certain events occur together. Classical Conditioning. Ivan Pavlov Studied Digestion of Dogs.
Ch. 9 Learning: Principles and Applications
Most learning is associative learning
Learning that certain events occur together.
Click above to see about Pavlov
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS):a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response.
Unconditional Response (UCR):the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the UCS.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS): an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with the UCS, comes to trigger a response.
Conditioned Response (CR): the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.
Pavlov spent the rest of his life outlining his ideas. He came up with 5 critical terms that together make up classical conditioning. Write down these terms!!
Let’s play a game….
I will need a special volunteer….
One who does not get angry easily…
One who does not mind getting wet…
Who will it be???
See if you can identify the UCS, UCR, CS and CR.
Classical Conditioning as portrayed in The Office.
Click to see Baby Albert to some nice jazz.
This type of Classical Conditioning is also known as Aversive Conditioning.
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment.
They both use acquisition, discrimination, SR, generalization and extinction.
Law of Effect: rewarded behavior is likely to recur.
Click picture to see a better explanation of the Law of Effect.
(Getting kicked out of class versus cutting class)
Negative Reinforcement examples:In Negative Reinforcement a particular behavior is strengthened by the consequence of the stopping or avoiding of a negative condition.
Meant to decrease a behavior.
Negative Punishment (Omission Training)
Punishment works best when it is immediately done after behavior and if it is harsh!
To train a dog to get your slippers, you would have to reinforce him in small steps. First, to find the slippers. Then to put them in his mouth. Then to bring them to you and so on…this is shaping behavior.
Do we wait for the subject to deliver the desired behavior?
Sometimes, we use a process called shaping.
Shaping is reinforcing small steps on the way to the desired behavior.
Click to see a cool example of chaining behaviors.
If I wanted to reinforce my son’s dancing by giving him lollipops when he dances. Identify the following….
Fixed Ration- She gets a manicure for every 5 pounds she loses.
A schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
Example: I give cookie monster a cookie every FIVE times he sings “C is for cookie”.
Fixed Interval: She gets a manicure for every 7 days she stays on her diet.
Click pic to see some observational learning.