Theoretical framework science values
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Theoretical Framework Science & Values. Chris Borgmeier, PhD Portland State University. Questions. How should special educators make decisions about choosing practices to support student needs?

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Theoretical Framework Science & Values

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Theoretical framework science values

Theoretical FrameworkScience & Values

Chris Borgmeier, PhD

Portland State University


Questions

Questions

  • How should special educators make decisions about choosing practices to support student needs?

  • Why are research, theoretical frameworks and data each important for guiding decision making and choosing professional practices in special education?

  • How does research inform practice?

  • How do I identify research based practices when I need interventions for a student challenge?


Research based theoretical framework

Research Based Theoretical Framework

  • What if there isn’t really a research-based curriculum or intervention for the individual needs of my student?

    • No random control trials; no group research

    • Look to single case research

  • Application of Research Based Principles

  • Grounding in a sound theoretical framework


Behavioral or learning theory

Behavioral or Learning Theory

Assumptions of Behavioral Theory

  • Behavior is Learned

  • Focus on the observable and measurable

  • Behavior is related to the environment in which it occurs

  • Behavior serves a purpose

  • Focus on how environmental variables can be manipulated to effect changes in behavior & learning

  • Measure student outcomes & learning

  • Educational approaches that have emerged from behaviorism include:

    • applied behavior analysis

    • Functional assessment

    • curriculum based measurement and progress monitoring, and

    • Direct instruction have emerged from this model

    • Discrete Trial Training

    • Modeling, shaping, fading, reinforcement, contract, extinction, etc.


Theoretical framework science values

Behaviorism

Conceptual Foundations

Laws of Behavior

ABA

Applied Behavioral Technology

Effective

Instruction

PBS

RTI & SW-PBIS

Social Validity

All Students


Foundations of behavior

Foundations of Behavior


B ehavior

Behavior

  • Identify the Target Behavior

    • Desired Behavior or Non-desired Behavior

  • Behavior must be identified so that it is observable & measurable

    • Define the behavior so that someone else could go into the room and both of you could measure the behavior without question


Operational definition

Operational Definition

Behavioral Definition: Observable & Measurable definition


Operational definition1

Operational Definition

Hands, Feet and Objects to Self: Student does not touch other students with their hands, feet or objects, with intent to hurt, bother or get peers attention at inappropriate times


Abc s of understanding behavior operant conditioning

ABC’s of Understanding BehaviorOperant Conditioning

  • What happens before (A or antecedent) the behavior occurs?

    • Trigger

  • What is the behavior (B)?

  • What happens after (C or consequence) the behavior occurs?

    • Response or Outcome of the Behavior

      A  B  C


Antecedents what triggers the behavior

AntecedentsWhat triggers the behavior?

  • What happens immediately preceding the problem/target behavior?

  • What triggers the behavior, be specific...

    • What activity?

    • What peers?

    • What tasks?

    • Describe in detail

  • If you wanted to set up the student to engage in the problem behavior, what would you have do?


Consequence what is the response to the behavior

Consequence What is the response to the behavior?

  • What happens immediately following the behavior?

    • How do peers respond?

    • How do the adults respond?

    • What are the consequences for the student?

    • How many times out of 10 do each of these responses occur following the problem behavior?

  • What is the student gaining as a result of engaging in the behavior?

    • How is it paying off for the student?


Learning

Learning

A  B  C

Student Learns through repeated experience, that under these specific Antecedent conditions, if I engage in this Behavior, I can expect this Consequence


Learning a b c

Learning & ABC


Reinforcing consequence

Reinforcing Consequence

AB C

If the consequence is rewarding/desired, the subject learns the behavior is functional for getting what they want

Behavior Increases in the Future

Rewarding or Desired Consequence


Punishing consequence

Punishing Consequence

A  B  C

If the consequence is punishing/undesired, the subject learns the behavior is not functional for getting what they want

Behavior Decreases in the Future

Punishing or Undesired Consequence


Abc s of instruction across the continuum of learners

ABC’s of InstructionAcross the Continuum of Learners

DIFFERENCES across Continuum

- # of trials to mastery

- explicitness of instruction


Reinforcing consequence1

Reinforcing Consequence

AB C

If the consequence is rewarding/desired, the subject learns the behavior is functional for getting what they want

Behavior Increases in the Future

Rewarding or Desired Consequence


Theoretical framework science values

A-B-C

A-B-C


Theoretical framework science values

A-B-C

A-B-C


Theoretical framework science values

Instruction & Support

A-B-C

A-B-C

Student

Independence


Phases of learning teaching alberto troutman 2009

Phases of Learning/TeachingAlberto & Troutman, 2009

  • Acquisition – student’s ability to perform a newly learned skill/response to some criterion of accuracy

  • Fluency– describe the rate at which students accurately perform a response; learner begins to build speed & efficiency in use of the skill or knowledge (but may not remember skill/knowledge over time without prompting)

  • Maintenance– student is able to recall & use the skill/ knowledge with a high rate of accuracy over more extended spans of time with limited review

  • Generalization– student generalizes skill or knowledge to novel contexts and as prior knowledge for learning new information


Acquisition phase

Acquisition Phase

  • Acquisition – student’s ability to perform a newly learned skill/response to some criterion of accuracy

    • Strong use of reinforcers

    • Regular prompting & error correction

    • Modeling & Guided practice

      • Model-Lead-Test/Model-Prompt-Check/I do-We do-You do

  • Important to have critical background knowledge & prerequisite skills

A-B-C


Fluency

Fluency

  • Following skill acquisition -- focus on improving the RATE at which the learner performs the behavior

    • What is an appropriate rate required for functional performance?

    • Reading, bus money, small talk, etc.

  • Teaching Strategies

    • Frequent structured practice

    • Fading to intermittent reinforcement

A-B-C


Maintenance

Maintenance

  • Once learners can perform a skill fluently, it is important to maintain the skill over time

    • What

  • Teaching Strategies

    • Make sure you are teaching functional/useful skills

    • Student access to natural reinforcers

    • Over-learning

    • Delayed reinforcement

A-B-C


Generalization

Generalization

  • Learners can use skill across settings other than the initial instructional conditions

    • Train for generalization v. Train & Hope

  • Teaching Strategies

    • Vary training across (Antecedent stimuli):

      • Settings

      • People

      • Signals/Prompt types

    • Teach the universe of examples

    • Intermittent reinforcement w/ link to natural reinforcers (Consequences)

    • Reinforce occurrences of generalization

    • Reinforce response across settings

A-B-C


Reinforcement continuum phases of teaching

Reinforcement Continuum & Phases of Teaching

Stages of Learning/Teaching

Acquisition Fluency  Maintenance

Continuous Intermittent…………fading…

Rates of Review & Reinforcement

Continuous – provide reinforcement/corrective feedback on every occurrence of behavior – reinforcement may be tangible paired w/ verbal praise

Intermittent – fade tangible, continue w/ intermittent verbal praise

Can usually anticipate that academic success or social benefits will continue to maintain desired behavior.

A-B-C


Theoretical framework science values

Instruction & Support

A-B-C

A-B-C

Acquisition

Fluency

Maintenance

Generalization

Student

Independence


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