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Present perfect tense
Usage: The present perfect tense
puts emphasis on the result
Ex: She has written five letters.
expresses an action that is still going on.
Ex: School has not started yet.
expresses an action that stopped recently
Ex: She has cooked dinner.
expresses a finished action that has an influence on the present
Ex: I have lost my key.
expresses an action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking
Ex: I have never been to Australia.
Form of present perfect:
For irregular verbs, use the participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add “ed”.
The adverbs are frequently used in the present perfect:
Ex: I have worked here for five years. She has lived here for twenty years. They have been married for six months.
Ex: I have lived here since 1998. They have been married since June. We have been at this school since last year.
Ex: Has she ever met someone famous? I have never visited London. I’ve never been so sick.
Already, yet and still: It can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence.
USAGE: The present perfect continuous tense
Example: She has been writing for two hours.
Form of present perfect continuous:
Signal Words of Present Perfect Progressive: all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week
Verbs with stative meanings are not used in the progressive. The present perfect, NOT the present perfect continuous, is used with stative verbs to describe the duration of a state that began in the past and continue to the present.
Ex: I have known Alice since he was a child.
Incorrect: I have been knowing Alice since he was a child.
Ex: They have been studying English for three years.
They’ve studied English for three years.
Ex: I’ve been working hard lately.
I’ve done a lot of work lately.
B: Well, I (have, never)________ vegeterian pizza, so I think I’ll order that.
I______ since 1998. That’s when IKEA_________ operations in Russia.
We______ five stores so far, and we_______ several large shopping malls in the last few years.