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AF 202. Airport Operations. Objectives. Review Airport layout and visual aids Airport operations Interception Procedures. Airport Layouts and Visual Aids. Taxiway Markings. Yellow centerline Double yellow edge marking when edge is not easily defined

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Af 202

AF 202

Airport Operations


Objectives
Objectives

  • Review

  • Airport layout and visual aids

  • Airport operations

  • Interception Procedures



Taxiway markings
Taxiway Markings

  • Yellow centerline

  • Double yellow edge marking when edge is not easily defined

  • Double dashed yellow edge marking when adjoining pavement is intended for aircraft (i.e. ramp)


Taxiway markings1
Taxiway Markings

  • Enhanced Centerline

    • No more than 150 feet from hold short line


Hold short
Hold Short

  • Runway Hold Short Line

  • ILS Hold Short Line


Hold short1
Hold Short

  • Hold short ofrunway approach


Taxiway lighting
Taxiway Lighting

  • Edge Lights – Steady Blue

  • Centerline Lights – Steady Green

  • Clearance Bar Lights – 3 Steady Yellow

    • Can be located at taxiway Intersections


Taxiway lighting1
Taxiway Lighting

  • Runway Guard Lights – Yellow

    • Alternating lights next to taxiway

    • Row of in ground lights

  • Stop Bar Lights – Steady Red

    • Used in low visibility

    • In pavement row of lights

    • Used to confirm ATC clearance


Runway markings
Runway Markings

  • Runway Designators

    • Printed magnetic direction

    • ‘L’ – Left ‘R’ – Right ‘C’ – Center

  • Runway Centerline

  • Runway Aiming point

    • 2 broad stripes 1000 ft from threshold


Runway markings1
Runway Markings

  • Touchdown Zone Markers

    • Marked every 500 feet

  • Threshold Markers

    • 8 lines or dependent on runway width


Runway markings2
Runway Markings

  • Types of Runways


Runway markings3
Runway Markings

  • Visual and Non-Precision


Runway markings4
Runway Markings

  • Precision Runway


Runway markings5
Runway Markings

  • Relocated Threshold

    • Can NOT land ortakeoff


Runway markings6
Runway Markings

  • Displaced Threshold

    • Can takeoff

    • Can NOT land


Runway markings7
Runway Markings

  • Blast Pad


Runway markings8
Runway Markings

  • Combo Deal



Runway lighting
Runway Lighting

  • Runway Centerline (RCLS) – White

  • Touchdown Zone (TDZL) – White

    • 2 rows

    • 100 feet past threshold to 3,000 feet

  • Taxiway Lead Off/On – Alternating green and yellow


Runway lighting1
Runway Lighting

  • Land and Hold Short – Flashing white

    • Row of lights

  • Runway End Identifier (REIL) – Flashing white

  • Runway Edge – White, yellow, red, green

    • Yellow is the last 2,000 ft or half (shortest)

    • Red on end of runway, green on approach


Runway lighting2
Runway Lighting

  • Runway Lighting Intensity

    • HIRL – High Intensity Runway Lighting

    • MIRL – Medium Intensity Runway Lighting

    • LIRL – Low Intensity Runway Lighting


Runway lighting3
Runway Lighting

  • ApproachLights



Runway lighting4
Runway Lighting

  • PAPI and tri-colored VASI


Runway lighting5
Runway Lighting

  • Runway Status Light (RWSL)

    • Runway Entrance Lights

    • Takeoff Hold Lights

    • Final Approach Runway Occupancy signal

      • Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) flashes if runway is occupied



Other markings
Other Markings

  • Runway Holding Position

  • Holding Position (Beginning of Runway)


Other markings1
Other Markings

  • Holding Position for Approach Area

  • ILS Holding Area


Other markings2
Other Markings

  • Position (Location) markings

  • Direction (Destination) Markings


Other markings3
Other Markings

  • Runway Distance Remaining

  • Ground Receiver Checkpoint



Airport beacons
Airport Beacons

  • White/Green – Civilian Airport

  • White/Yellow – Seaport

  • White/White/Green – Military

  • White/Yellow/Green - Heliport



Land and hold short
Land And Hold Short

  • Controller can clear a pilot for LAHSO when there is an intersecting runway

  • Pilot must determine if there is enough Available Runway Distance

  • Pilot in Command has final authority to accept clearance (cannot be forced)



Wake turbulence
Wake Turbulence

  • Large Aircraft generate large wingtip vortices

  • Vortex generation is governed by weight, speed and shape of wing

    • Heavy, slow, and clean configuration gives the greatest vortex strength


Wake turbulence1
Wake Turbulence

  • Small aircraft must be separated from large and heavy aircraft by 3 minutes

  • 3 minute separate rule does not apply

    • Parallel runway father than 2500 ft

    • When departure point is within 500 ft

    • When PIC waivers the rule

  • 3 minute rule cannot be waived if behind a heavy aircraft


Wake turbulence2
Wake Turbulence

  • Land/Takeoff before the rotation point of an airplane that just took off

  • Land/Takeoff after the touchdown point of an airplane that just landed


Unexpected maneuvers
Unexpected Maneuvers

  • ATC services is based on observed or known traffic

    • Controllers establish sequence and spacing

  • Controllers can anticipate minor maneuvers like ‘S’ turns

  • Controllers cannot anticipate 360 turns

    • Must request or be asked by ATC


Intersection takeoffs
Intersection Takeoffs

  • Pilots are expected to taxi to the beginning of the runway

  • Pilot can request intersection takeoff



Special vfr
Special VFR

  • Must be done in controlled airspace only

  • Clearance must be obtained from ATC when in class B, C, D airports

  • Clearance must be obtained from nearest tower, FSS, or center when in class E airport


Special vfr1
Special VFR

  • Must be requested by pilot

  • Weather Requirements

    • Visibility of at least 1 statute mile

    • Remain clear of clouds

  • At night

    • Pilot and aircraft must be IFR certified


Surveillance environment
Surveillance Environment

  • Surveillance is available at class B, C and D TRSA (Terminal Radar Service Area)

  • Initial contact is made with approach control

  • Altitude should be reported along with position


Surveillance environment1
Surveillance Environment

  • Upon departing, initial contact is often made with Clearance Delivery

    • Type aircraft, location on field, course heading, requested altitude, ATIS.

  • Ground is simply contacted for taxi clearance

  • After tower you will be transferred to departure


Surveillance environment2
Surveillance Environment

  • A Mode C transponder is required for most surveillance environments

  • Mode C is altitude encoding which means the controller can see your altitude

  • Why is the altitude off in the 172R transponder?



Surveillance equipment
Surveillance Equipment

  • Radar

    • Radio waves bounce off targets

    • Has limitations and so the pilot is still required to ‘see and avoid’

    • Waves can be bent by temperature inversions

    • Line of sight only

    • Low altitude aircraft are harder to see


  • ATC Radar Beacon System (ATCRSB)

    • Like a “secondary” radar system

    • Reinforces primary radar and aids in rapid target identification

    • Includes interrogator, transponder, and radarscope


Surveillance equipment1
Surveillance Equipment

  • ASR – Surveillance Radar

    • Often used for non-precision radar appraoches

  • PAR – Precision Approach Radar

    • Used for precision radar approaches

  • Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ADSE)

    • Provides ground radar surveillance

    • Some transponders have ground mode


Interception procedures
Interception Procedures

“Identification intercepts during peacetime operations are vastly different than those conducted under increased states of readiness.”

Here are the peacetime procedures…




Interception procedures3
Interception Procedures

  • If intercepted contact air traffic control immediately or guard 121.5

  • “If the U.S. military intercepts an aircraft and flares are dispensed in the area of that aircraft, aviators will pay strict attention!!!!!!”


Interception procedures4
Interception Procedures

  • Phase One

    • Aircraft will be approached from the stern

    • Two aircraft will attempt identification

  • Phase Two

    • Intercepted aircraft should expect to visually acquire the lead interceptor

    • They will get closer to read your tail number


Interception procedures5
Interception Procedures

  • Phase 3

    • After identification, flight leader will turn away followed by wingman






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