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QU: Why do we breathe? **Need book the rest of the Unit** *Final Review is online!!* OBJ: S.M. Q’s, Types of energy and uses, Over Test. Friday December 14 th 2012. “Cockroaches can live for 9 days after their head has been cut off.”. QU: What is the word equation for cellular respiration?

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Friday December 14 th 2012

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Friday december 14 th 2012

  • QU: Why do we breathe?

    **Need book the rest of the Unit**

    *Final Review is online!!*

  • OBJ: S.M. Q’s, Types of energy and uses, Over Test

Friday December 14th 2012

“Cockroaches can live for 9 days after their head has been cut off.”


Monday december 17 th 2012

  • QU: What is the word equation for cellular respiration?

    **Turn in Energy Homework to HW Bin**

    *CR Project Due at the End of the Hour WedNesday*

  • OBJ: C.R. Notes and C.R. Project

    “The warmest temperature ever recorded on Antarctica was 3 degrees F.”

Monday December 17th 2012


Cellular respiration

Cellular Respiration

Who? Why? Where? What?


In what organisms does cellular respiration take place who

In what organisms does cellular respiration take place?(WHO?)


Plants and animals

  • Plants - Autotrophs:

    • self-producers.

  • Animals - Heterotrophs:

    • consumers.

Plants and Animals…


Why do we care about cellular respiration

Why do we care about Cellular Respiration?


Friday december 14 th 2012

  • We eat complex foods with large molecules.

    • These foods are full of energy BUT our body is not prepared to use the energy in that state.

      • We have to change it……

WHY?


Why cont

  • Solution: Our body digests macromolecules into their monomers.

    • Main focus for this class: carbohydrates into glucose.

  • Then cellular respiration retrieves the glucose and takes over!!

WHY? (cont.)


Why cont1

  • Cellular respiration’s main function

    • Turn glucose into useable ATP

      • 38 ATP per Glucose molecule

      • Also forms carbon dioxide and water

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

(Glucose)(ATP)

WHY? (cont.)


Where does cellular respiration occur

Where does Cellular Respiration occur?


Where

  • Cellular Respiration occurs in the…

    • Cytoplasm

      • Glycolysis---Cytosol (Cytoplasm)

    • Mitochondria

      • Krebs Cycle—Mitochondrial Matrix

      • Electron Transport Chain/ATP Synthase---Inner Mitochondrial Membrane

WHERE?


Where cont

Inner

membrane space

Matrix

Cristae

Outer

membrane

Inner

membrane

WHERE? (cont.)


What happens in cellular respiration

What happens in Cellular Respiration?


Friday december 14 th 2012

  • Cellular Respiration:

    • catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O2)requiring process that uses energyto extract energy (ATP) from macromolecules (glucose).

      • Catabolic: Rxn that breaks molecules down

      • Makes CO2 and H2O as well as energy (ATP)

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

(Glucose)(ATP)

WHAT?


Amp adp atp

  • Adenosine Tri-Phospate:

    • Made of three things

      • 1.) Ribose (sugar)

      • 2.) Adenosine (base)

      • 3.) Three phosphates

        • Key to the activity of ATP

AMP, ADP, ATP


Amp adp atp1

  • ATP works by losing the endmost phosphate group when instructed to do so by an enzyme.

  • As the molecule goes from ATP to ADP to AMP it loses a phosphate.

    • With each lost phosphate more energy is released

  • This reaction releases a lot of energy, which the organism can then use to build proteins, contact muscles, etc

AMP, ADP, ATP


Atp to adp to adp releases energy

ATP

ADP

AMP

ATP to ADP To ADP releases energy


How steps of cellular respiration glycolysis and krebs cycle and substrate level phosphorylation

HOW: Steps of Cellular RespirationGlycolysis and Krebs Cycleand Substrate Level Phosphorylation


Tuesday december 18 th 2012

  • QU: How is energy released from the ATP?

    *CR Project Due Weds. at the end of the hour*

    Absent yesterday? Turn in your HW from Friday

  • OBJ: C.R. Notes and C.R. Project

    “The warmest temperature ever recorded on Antarctica was 3 degrees F.”

Tuesday December 18th 2012


What cont

  • Cellular Respiration is broken into three main parts.

    • 1.) Glycolysis: splits sugar (glucose)

    • 2.) Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle): Extracts the energy from glucose

    • 3.) Electron Transport Chain/ATP Synthase: Turns the energy into ATP for the body to use

      **In total makes 38 ATP**

WHAT? (cont.)


Glycolysis

  • Occurs in thecytoplasm just outside of mitochondria.

  • Two phases:

    A. Energy investment phase

    -Put energy in

    B. Energy yielding phase

    -Get energy out

Glycolysis


Glycolysis step 1

Glucose (6C)

C-C-C-C-C-C

2ATP

2 ATP - used

0 ATP - produced

0 NADH - produced

2P

2ADP +

C-C-C

C-C-C

Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C)

(G3P or GAP)

  • Energy Investment Phase: must put in 2 molecules of ATP to start Cellular Respiration

Glycolysis: Step 1


Glycolysis step 2

Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C)

GAP

GAP

C-C-C C-C-C

4ADP +

4P

0 ATP - used

4 ATP - produced

2 NADH - produced

4ATP

C-C-C C-C-C

(PYR)

(PYR)

Pyruvate(2 - 3C)

  • Energy Yielding Phase: Rewarded for your investment by 4 ATP molecules

Glycolysis: Step 2


Glycolysis the final picture

  • Total Net Yield:

    2 - 3C-Pyruvate (PYR)

    2 - ATP(You put in two ATP and made for so total you have is 2 ATP)

    2 - NADH

Glycolysis: The final picture


The in between

  • The 2 Pyruvates (PYR) (3 Carbons) lose one carbon each.

  • Now they each have only 2 carbons and are called Acetyl CoA

(PYR)

(PYR)

C-C-C C-C-C

C-C C-C

Acetyl CoA

Acetyl CoA

“The In-between”


Krebs cycle citric acid cycle

Mitochondrial

Matrix

  • Location: Mitochondrial Matrix

  • Acetyl CoA (2C)bonds to Oxalacetic acid (4C - OAA)to make Citrate (6C).

  • It takes 2 turnsof the krebs cycle to oxidize1 glucosemolecule.

    • Oxidize: remove electrons for energy

Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)


Krebs cycle citric acid cycle1

  • Total net yield(2 turnsof krebs cycle)

    1.2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation)

    -Substrate-level phosphorylation: when phosphates are added directly to a molecule of ADP or AMP to make ATP

    2.6 – NADH

    3.2 - FADH2

    4.4 - CO2

Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)


2 x around krebs cycle

2 Acetyl CoA (2C)

Citrate (6C)

OAA (4C)

Krebs

Cycle

4 CO2

2 FADH2

6 NAD+

2 FAD

6 NADH

2 ATP

2 ADP +

P

2 x around = Krebs Cycle


Steps of cellular respiration electron transport chain etc and oxidative phosphorylation

Steps of Cellular RespirationElectron Transport Chain (ETC)and Oxidative Phosphorylation


Wednesday december 19 th 2012

  • QU:

  • OBJ: C.R. Notes and Project

    “In 1845 Boston had an ordinance banning bathing unless you had a doctor's prescription.”

*CR Project Due Today at the end of the hour*

**CR Quiz on Friday**

***Journals Due Friday***

WedNesday December 19th 2012


Electron transport chain etc

Inner

Mitochondrial

Membrane

  • Location:inner mitochondrial membrane.

  • ETC and ATPSynthase(enzyme) make ATP.

  • ETCis a series of transport proteins that pump H+and electrons across the inner membrane to make ATP and Water.

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)


Electron transport chain etc1

  • All NADH and FADH2converted to ATP during this stage of cellular respiration.

  • Each NADH converts to 3 ATP.

  • Each FADH2 converts to 2 ATP.

  • Water is also made

  • Oxidative Phosphorylation: ATP synthesized from a proton gradient using electron pumps and ATP Synthase

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)


Electron transport chain

Electron Transport Chain


Total atp yield

Total ATP Yield

1. 04 ATP – Glycolysis and Krebs cycle

2. 34 ATP - ETC

38 ATP – TOTAL NET Yield

ETC Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbJ0nbzt5Kw&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1

Total ATP Yield…


Thursday december 20 th 2012

  • QU:

  • OBJ: Cellular Respiration Webquest

*Quiz tomorrow*

**Bring Book the Rest of the Unit**

*Test on the Weds. You Return*

Thursday December 20th 2012


Friday december 21 st 2012

  • QU: What is the equation for Cellular Respiration?

    **Bring Book the Rest of the Unit**

    *Test on the Weds. You Return*

  • OBJ: C.R. Quiz, Over Energy, Review

Friday December 21st 2012


Monday january 7 th 2013

  • QU:

    **Cellular Respiration Test on WedNesday**

    *Make-up Quiz today after school or tomorrow before school*

  • OBJ: Cellular Respiration Review

Monday January 7th 2013


Binder organization ch 7

  • Syllabus

  • Word Search

  • Chapter 7 Section 1 Notes

  • Cellular Respiration Project

  • Cellular Respiration Webquest

  • Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Review

  • Cellular Respiration Graphic Organizer

  • Cellular Respiration Practice Quiz

  • Cellular Respiration Hand Written Notes

Binder Organization: Ch 7


Tuesday january 8 th 2013

  • QU: What is one question you still have about cellular respiration?

    **Chapter Review Due tomorrow**

    *Binder Due Tomorrow*

  • OBJ: Cellular Respiration Review

Tuesday January 8th 2013


Wednesday january 9 th 2013

  • QU: How did you study for this test?

    **Chapter Review to the HW Bin**

    *Binder to my Lab Table*

  • OBJ: Cellular Respiration Test

WedNesday January 9th 2013


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