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QU: Why do we breathe? **Need book the rest of the Unit** *Final Review is online!!* OBJ: S.M. Q’s, Types of energy and uses, Over Test. Friday December 14 th 2012. “Cockroaches can live for 9 days after their head has been cut off.”. QU: What is the word equation for cellular respiration?

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Friday December 14 th 2012

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  • QU: Why do we breathe?

    **Need book the rest of the Unit**

    *Final Review is online!!*

  • OBJ: S.M. Q’s, Types of energy and uses, Over Test

Friday December 14th 2012

“Cockroaches can live for 9 days after their head has been cut off.”


  • QU: What is the word equation for cellular respiration?

    **Turn in Energy Homework to HW Bin**

    *CR Project Due at the End of the Hour WedNesday*

  • OBJ: C.R. Notes and C.R. Project

    “The warmest temperature ever recorded on Antarctica was 3 degrees F.”

Monday December 17th 2012


Cellular Respiration

Who? Why? Where? What?


In what organisms does cellular respiration take place?(WHO?)


  • Plants - Autotrophs:

    • self-producers.

  • Animals - Heterotrophs:

    • consumers.

Plants and Animals…


Why do we care about Cellular Respiration?


  • We eat complex foods with large molecules.

    • These foods are full of energy BUT our body is not prepared to use the energy in that state.

      • We have to change it……

WHY?


  • Solution: Our body digests macromolecules into their monomers.

    • Main focus for this class: carbohydrates into glucose.

  • Then cellular respiration retrieves the glucose and takes over!!

WHY? (cont.)


  • Cellular respiration’s main function

    • Turn glucose into useable ATP

      • 38 ATP per Glucose molecule

      • Also forms carbon dioxide and water

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

(Glucose)(ATP)

WHY? (cont.)


Where does Cellular Respiration occur?


  • Cellular Respiration occurs in the…

    • Cytoplasm

      • Glycolysis---Cytosol (Cytoplasm)

    • Mitochondria

      • Krebs Cycle—Mitochondrial Matrix

      • Electron Transport Chain/ATP Synthase---Inner Mitochondrial Membrane

WHERE?


Inner

membrane space

Matrix

Cristae

Outer

membrane

Inner

membrane

WHERE? (cont.)


What happens in Cellular Respiration?


  • Cellular Respiration:

    • catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O2)requiring process that uses energyto extract energy (ATP) from macromolecules (glucose).

      • Catabolic: Rxn that breaks molecules down

      • Makes CO2 and H2O as well as energy (ATP)

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

(Glucose)(ATP)

WHAT?


  • Adenosine Tri-Phospate:

    • Made of three things

      • 1.) Ribose (sugar)

      • 2.) Adenosine (base)

      • 3.) Three phosphates

        • Key to the activity of ATP

AMP, ADP, ATP


  • ATP works by losing the endmost phosphate group when instructed to do so by an enzyme.

  • As the molecule goes from ATP to ADP to AMP it loses a phosphate.

    • With each lost phosphate more energy is released

  • This reaction releases a lot of energy, which the organism can then use to build proteins, contact muscles, etc

AMP, ADP, ATP


ATP

ADP

AMP

ATP to ADP To ADP releases energy


HOW: Steps of Cellular RespirationGlycolysis and Krebs Cycleand Substrate Level Phosphorylation


  • QU: How is energy released from the ATP?

    *CR Project Due Weds. at the end of the hour*

    Absent yesterday? Turn in your HW from Friday

  • OBJ: C.R. Notes and C.R. Project

    “The warmest temperature ever recorded on Antarctica was 3 degrees F.”

Tuesday December 18th 2012


  • Cellular Respiration is broken into three main parts.

    • 1.) Glycolysis: splits sugar (glucose)

    • 2.) Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle): Extracts the energy from glucose

    • 3.) Electron Transport Chain/ATP Synthase: Turns the energy into ATP for the body to use

      **In total makes 38 ATP**

WHAT? (cont.)


  • Occurs in thecytoplasm just outside of mitochondria.

  • Two phases:

    A. Energy investment phase

    -Put energy in

    B. Energy yielding phase

    -Get energy out

Glycolysis


Glucose (6C)

C-C-C-C-C-C

2ATP

2 ATP - used

0 ATP - produced

0 NADH - produced

2P

2ADP +

C-C-C

C-C-C

Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C)

(G3P or GAP)

  • Energy Investment Phase: must put in 2 molecules of ATP to start Cellular Respiration

Glycolysis: Step 1


Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C)

GAP

GAP

C-C-C C-C-C

4ADP +

4P

0 ATP - used

4 ATP - produced

2 NADH - produced

4ATP

C-C-C C-C-C

(PYR)

(PYR)

Pyruvate(2 - 3C)

  • Energy Yielding Phase: Rewarded for your investment by 4 ATP molecules

Glycolysis: Step 2


  • Total Net Yield:

    2 - 3C-Pyruvate (PYR)

    2 - ATP(You put in two ATP and made for so total you have is 2 ATP)

    2 - NADH

Glycolysis: The final picture


  • The 2 Pyruvates (PYR) (3 Carbons) lose one carbon each.

  • Now they each have only 2 carbons and are called Acetyl CoA

(PYR)

(PYR)

C-C-C C-C-C

C-C C-C

Acetyl CoA

Acetyl CoA

“The In-between”


Mitochondrial

Matrix

  • Location: Mitochondrial Matrix

  • Acetyl CoA (2C)bonds to Oxalacetic acid (4C - OAA)to make Citrate (6C).

  • It takes 2 turnsof the krebs cycle to oxidize1 glucosemolecule.

    • Oxidize: remove electrons for energy

Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)


  • Total net yield(2 turnsof krebs cycle)

    1.2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation)

    -Substrate-level phosphorylation: when phosphates are added directly to a molecule of ADP or AMP to make ATP

    2.6 – NADH

    3.2 - FADH2

    4.4 - CO2

Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)


2 Acetyl CoA (2C)

Citrate (6C)

OAA (4C)

Krebs

Cycle

4 CO2

2 FADH2

6 NAD+

2 FAD

6 NADH

2 ATP

2 ADP +

P

2 x around = Krebs Cycle


Steps of Cellular RespirationElectron Transport Chain (ETC)and Oxidative Phosphorylation


  • QU:

  • OBJ: C.R. Notes and Project

    “In 1845 Boston had an ordinance banning bathing unless you had a doctor's prescription.”

*CR Project Due Today at the end of the hour*

**CR Quiz on Friday**

***Journals Due Friday***

WedNesday December 19th 2012


Inner

Mitochondrial

Membrane

  • Location:inner mitochondrial membrane.

  • ETC and ATPSynthase(enzyme) make ATP.

  • ETCis a series of transport proteins that pump H+and electrons across the inner membrane to make ATP and Water.

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)


  • All NADH and FADH2converted to ATP during this stage of cellular respiration.

  • Each NADH converts to 3 ATP.

  • Each FADH2 converts to 2 ATP.

  • Water is also made

  • Oxidative Phosphorylation: ATP synthesized from a proton gradient using electron pumps and ATP Synthase

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)


Electron Transport Chain


Total ATP Yield

1. 04 ATP – Glycolysis and Krebs cycle

2. 34 ATP - ETC

38 ATP – TOTAL NET Yield

ETC Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbJ0nbzt5Kw&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1

Total ATP Yield…


  • QU:

  • OBJ: Cellular Respiration Webquest

*Quiz tomorrow*

**Bring Book the Rest of the Unit**

*Test on the Weds. You Return*

Thursday December 20th 2012


  • QU: What is the equation for Cellular Respiration?

    **Bring Book the Rest of the Unit**

    *Test on the Weds. You Return*

  • OBJ: C.R. Quiz, Over Energy, Review

Friday December 21st 2012


  • QU:

    **Cellular Respiration Test on WedNesday**

    *Make-up Quiz today after school or tomorrow before school*

  • OBJ: Cellular Respiration Review

Monday January 7th 2013


  • Syllabus

  • Word Search

  • Chapter 7 Section 1 Notes

  • Cellular Respiration Project

  • Cellular Respiration Webquest

  • Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Review

  • Cellular Respiration Graphic Organizer

  • Cellular Respiration Practice Quiz

  • Cellular Respiration Hand Written Notes

Binder Organization: Ch 7


  • QU: What is one question you still have about cellular respiration?

    **Chapter Review Due tomorrow**

    *Binder Due Tomorrow*

  • OBJ: Cellular Respiration Review

Tuesday January 8th 2013


  • QU: How did you study for this test?

    **Chapter Review to the HW Bin**

    *Binder to my Lab Table*

  • OBJ: Cellular Respiration Test

WedNesday January 9th 2013


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