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The Efforts of the Swedish Forestry Organisation to equate the Environmental Goal with the Production Goal. (1999). Background. Biodiversity in the forests is threatened In the revised Forestry Act in 1994 the environmental goal was equated with the production goal. The Aim of the Audit.

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The Efforts of the Swedish Forestry Organisation to equate the Environmental Goal with the Production Goal

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The efforts of the swedish forestry organisation to equate the environmental goal with the production goal

The Efforts of the Swedish Forestry Organisation to equate the Environmental Goal with the Production Goal

(1999)


Background

Background

  • Biodiversity in the forests is threatened

  • In the revised Forestry Act in 1994 the environmental goal was equated with the production goal


The aim of the audit

The Aim of the Audit

  • Examine how the SFO in practice has managed to equate the environmental goal with the production goal

    • An audit of the environmental work of the SFO in order to reach the environmental goal


The environmental goal in the forestry

The Environmental Goal in the Forestry:

  • To maintain the biodiversity in the forests

    • The variety within and between the species and within the ecological systems

    • Every species which today live in viable populations should be preserved


The swedish forest

The Swedish Forest

  • 23 million hectares (55 % of the Swedish ground area)

  • The forestry and forest industry employs 120 000 people

  • In four of five nature regions very small shares of the forests are preserved in nature reserves


Nature reserves compared to estimated needs

Mountainous region

Northern Taiga region

Southern Taiga region

Deciduous and coniferous region

Deciduous region

43 %n.e.

1.6 % 9 %

0.4 % 8 %

0.7 %12 %

0.6 %16 %

Nature reserves (compared to estimated needs)


Stakeholders in forestry

Stakeholders in forestry

  • Forest Owners

  • The Forest Industry

  • Forest Contractors

    • Machine operators

  • State Agencies

  • NGO’s

  • Indigenous People (the Laplanders)

  • The Public (for berries, mushrooms, hunting, recreation etc.)


The forestry trade

The Forestry trade

  • Large Forest Companies

  • Medium-sized Forest Owners

  • Private (Individual Owners)

    • Organized within forest owners organizations which act as forest companies

    • Not organized owners

  • Wood Purchasing companies


State agencies

State Agencies

  • The Swedish Forest Organization

    • 11 Regions

      • 97 Districts

  • The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency


Some of the threats to the biodiversity of the forests

Some of the Threats to the Biodiversity of the Forests

  • Old forests and trees have become rare

  • The share of deciduous forests (and esp. old ones) is decreasing

  • Dead wood has become rare

  • Different-aged forests have become rare

  • Mixtures of different trees are more seldom

    Species depending on old forests, old deciduous forests and dead wood have become threatened


Environmental measures in forestry

Environmental measures in forestry

  • General considerations at clear-felling

  • General considerations at ditching, thinning etc.

  • Voluntary saving of forests (without registration/documentation at the authorities)

  • Voluntary saving (registered)

  • Environmental protection agreement (50 years)

  • Habitat protection agreement (no time limit)

  • Nature reserve


Possible target groups for the sfo

Possible Target groups for the SFO

  • Forest Companies

  • Forest Owners Organisations

    • (forestry advisors within Companies and Forest Owners Organisations)

  • Private Forest Owners

  • Contractors

    • Machine operators


Focus of the audit

Focus of the audit

  • The advisory efforts of the SFO districts

  • The inspecting efforts of the SFO districts

  • The examinations of the nature values performed by the SFO


Our methods

Our methods

  • Interviews with in total 6 administrators (heads and specialists) within the central organisation

  • Examination of regulations, instructions, written advices and literature from the central authority

  • Case studies of 4 (out of 11) Regional Forestry Boards within the SFO

  • Case studies of 14 (out of 97) districts within the SFO

  • Survey of the educational level of the local administrators

  • Knowledge test of one represent from each district responsible for handling clear felling notifications (telephone enquiry)

  • Attendance to scientific seminars and conferences esp. an international conference on Biodiversity in Managed Forests

  • Literature studies (Government bills, legislation, other evaluations, advisory material from SFO and other stakeholders, handbooks, scientific papers etc.)


Criteria for selection of regions for case studies

Criteria for selection of regions for case studies

  • Different nature regions

  • Different dominating ownership

  • Differences of expected practice in environmental considerations (both fore-runners and latecomers)

  • Possibility of comparison two and two (both between regions and districts within regions)


The case study of 4 regions

The Case study of 4 regions

  • Interviews with the heads of the four regions and totally 11 other administrators at the regional offices

  • Examinations of statistics concerning owners, the age distribution of the personal, the results of the key habitat survey, decisions on habitat reserves and nature protection agreements

  • Examination of the sales statistics from the central authority concerning environmental advisory literature to the regions


The case studies of the 14 districts

The Case Studies of the 14 districts

  • Interviews with in total 38 administrators and heads in 14 districts

  • Examination of notifications to the SFO about clear-felling and the handling of the notifications

  • Interviews with 4 machine operators (entrepreneurs)

  • Interviews with forestry advisors (from two large companies and three owner organisations and two timber purchasing companies)

  • Field studies of some registered key habitats and clear felled areas mentioned in the interviews

  • Interviews with a few persons from NGO’s


The examination of educational background

The examination of educational background

  • Collection of central statistics concerning education in nature biology

  • Collection of and comparison with regional data


The knowledge enquiry

The Knowledge Enquiry

  • Telephone enquiry with false and right statements concerning the biodiversity and the correlation with forestry measures

  • The enquiry was elaborated in cooperation with a biologist within the forestry sector

  • The knowledge required to give the right answer should represent the level of half a year of studies of nature biology


Main results 1

Main Results (1)

  • The forestry act is a paradox

  • SFO has to encourage voluntary set-aside and considerations

  • The machine operators is a neglected target group for the advice

  • Individual follow-up is necessary

  • SFO is only one of many stakeholders aiming at a more environmental forestry (SFO also has business operations)


Main results 2

Main Results (2)

  • SFO must be a good example in environmental considerations (it isn’t always today)

  • Very great cultural differences within the SFO (depending both on geographical location, educational level and personal interest)

  • The SFO’s key habitat survey has great deficiencies

  • Field inspection and advice from SFO is necessary


Recommendations

Recommendations

  • SFO must establish preservation goals for each nature region

  • SFO must require information about nature values

  • SFO must perform an individual follow-up of forestry

  • SFO should continue and extend the key habitat survey

  • Greater focus on environmental protection agreements with forest owners and on advice to the machine operators

  • Greater emphasis on further education of all advising personal in nature biology

  • More emphasis on field advising and inspections

  • At least one professional biologist within each region

  • Resource improvement to the SFO


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