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第五章 微生物的代谢 和发酵 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第五章 微生物的代谢 和发酵. 第一节 代谢概论 第二节 微生物分解代谢 第三节 微生物次级代谢与次级代谢产物 第四节 微生物的代谢调控与发酵生产 第五节 代谢调节在发酵工业中的应用. 第一节 代谢概论. 第二节 微生物分解代谢. 一、 生物氧化. 二、 异养微生物的生物氧化 底物脱氢的四种途径 EMP 途径 HMP 途径 ED 途径 磷酸酮解途径 有氧呼吸 无氧呼吸. 三、 自养微生物的生物氧化

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第五章 微生物的代谢 和发酵

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EMPHMP

ED



catabolismanabolism

= +

ATP

ATP





------ATP

ATP


  • 1 2 3



NADFAD


:

ATP

[H]


ATP



1. (fermentation)


glycolysis


EMP

HMP

ED


ATP

ADP

ATP

ADP

ADP

ATP

ADP

ATP

NAD+

NADH+H+

EMP

Embden-Meyerhof pathway

-6-

a

-6-

-16-

EMP

ATP NADH

-3-

13-

3-

a :

b

2-

b :


EMP

1.1.6()

2.1.623-

3.3-

+2NAD+2Pi+2ADP 2+2NADH2+2ATP

CoA

CoATCA


HMP

  • 6--

  • HMPEMPHMP

  • 3--EMP

  • HMP-6--3-3CO26NADPH

  • HMPNADPH


HMP

6-6-5-CO2

3-EMPHMP


1CO2HMP

HMP

6 -6-+12NADP++6H2O

5 -6-+12NADPH+12H++12CO2+Pi


NADH+H+

ADP

ATP

NAD(P)+

CH2OH

CH2OP

CH2OP

HO

o

o

o

OH

OH

OH

OH

OH

OH

OH

OH

H- C=O

H-C-OH

HO

H-C-OH

H-C-OH

CH2OP

CH2OH

CH2OH

CH2OH

C=O

C=O

C=O

HO-C-H

H-C-OH

H-C-OH

H-C-OH

H-C-OH

H-C-OH

D CH2OP

H-C-OP

H-C-OP

H

H

NADH+H+

NAD(P)+

COOH

HO

6--

6--

5--

HMP

5--

5--

5--

5--

5--

5--

3--

6--

4--

6--

3--

6--

6--

6--


HMP

1 6-

2 6-5- 5-

5-

3 5-6-+3-(EMP


HMP

  • NADPH2

  • EMP-16--3-

  • -


  • 3~7

  • HMP


ED

ED2--3--6-KDPG

1952Pseudomonas saccharophila EDEMPHMPEMP


ED

  • ED

  • ED

KDPG

-3-

KDPG

EMP

  • EDED21ATP1NADPH1NADH

  • ED

  • EDEMPHMP

  • EDEMP


ED

  • 2--3--6-3- 3-EMP121ATP

  • ED2--3--6-KDPG3-EDKDPG

  • EMPHMPTCATCA


ED

  • 2--3--6-

  • 6-KDPG

    • pH5


2

PK

HK


2

2-6-

6-6--

EMP

4--

HMP

2-5-

2 -3- 2

2

2


:

11ATPEMP;

CO2


2323-- 3--ADPATP

2.5ATP


TCA

Krebs

NADH+4H

12ATP

FADH

2ATP

C

CO~CoA

CH

3

3

GTP

ATP

3CO

2


CoACoA

CoA

CO2H2O

1CoA

12ATP


TCA

1CoA2CO2,1

2NAD+NADH+H+FAD

3

4

5

6Glu


ATP

NADHNADPHFAD

,

O2;

O2

NO3-SO42-


C

H

O

1/2

O

6

12

6

2

-

[H]

H

O

2

A

CO

NO

SO

-

2

-

2

3

4

-

[H]

[H]

NO

SO

-

2

-

CH

B

2

3

4

-

[H]

C

A

B

C

AH

BH

CH

2

2

2

-

[H]

CO

2


  • EMPHMPEDPK

  • NADH+H+NADPH+H+NADH+H+NADPH+H+


C6H12O6

2CH3COCOOH

2CH3CHO

2CH3CH2OH

NAD

EMP

2ATP

NADH2

-2CO2

pH3.5~4.5


211

CH3CHO+H2O+NAD+ CH3COOH+NADH+H+

CH3CHO+NADH+H+ CH3CH2OH+ NAD+

3- --

22+++2CO2


(The Pasteur effect )


+ATP

2H

ED

2--3--6--

3-

2H

2ATP

2CO2

2


  • pH3.5-4.5

    ~ ~

    EMP

    C6H12O6+2ADP+2Pi 2C2H5OH+2CO2+2ATP

  • (Zymomonas mobilis)

    ED

    +ADP+Pi 2+2CO2+ATP

  • (Leuconostoc mesenteroides)

    HMP

    +ADP+Pi ++CO2+ATP


EMP

HMP

: HK


2 2

4ATP

2NAD+ 2NADH

4ADP

3-

2( 1,3--

2ATP 2ADP


CoA

ATP ADP

NAD+ NADH

NAD+ NADH

6-

6-

5-

-CO2

3-

-2H

2ADP 2ATP


/

EMP

2

2

ATP

Lactobacillus debruckii

1

HMP

1

1

ATP

Leuconostoc

mesenteroides

1

CO

2

1

HMP

1

2

ATP

Lactobacillus brevis

1

CO2


2,3-

CoA

3-

2,3-

EMP

-

-

CO2 H2

-

2,3-


CoA

CO2 H2

  • EMPH2CO2

PEP

+2H

-

pH6.2


2.

aerobic respiration

anaerobic respiration


2.


(1)

()

EMP,TCA

NAD,FAD,Q

TCA


(1)

CO2


  • ATP

  • NADO2FMN CoQb c 1 c a a


MH2NAD FMN C0Q b

(-0.32v) (0.0v)

C1C a a3 O2 H2O

(+0.26)(+0.28) (+0.82v)

NAD+/NADHE0O2/H2OE0NADH O2

NADH+H+FADH2

ADPATP


NADFADH2 H2O

NADH2FAD1/2O2

+2H+

EMP

2NADH2

CoA

2NADH2

TCA

6NADH2

TCA

2FADH2

FPFe-SCyt.bCyt.cCyt.aCyt.a3


  • NADNDAH+H+

  • FADFMN

  • Fe-S2Fe+2S

  • Q10~15


ATP

ATP.ATP.,ATP.,ATP,

1. :

2.ATP:


:ATP

,.

:

H2H2S


ATP

ATP

ADPATP


  • ADPATP

  • Q

  • ATP3ATP1ATPATP


  • ATP

  • pHATPATPATP


TCA

CO2

-


CO2TCA

CO2

CO2++ATP+H2O Mg+++ADP+Pi

:

CO2 +PEP+ H2O +H3PO4

:

CO2 ++NADPH+H+ + NADP+


CoA

CoA


CoACoA

+

+

+

2


2

NO3- NO2-SO42-S2O32-

1796.14KJ


2

  • NO3-NO2-SO42-S2O32-CO2fumarate


2


NO3-



PH3


ATP


CO2


ATP

[H]

CO2[CH2O]

ATP

ATP

ATP


1

NH3NO2-


2

sulfur bacteria

Winogradsky

CO2

CO2


Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

Fe2+pH3.0

pH4-5Fe2+Fe3+


Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

FeS2

Fe(OH)3

FeS2O2CO2


ATP


1substrate level phosphorylation

ATPGTP


2oxidative phosphorylation


3photophosphorylation

ATP


3photophosphorylation


3photophosphorylation


3photophosphorylation


3photophosphorylation

1

ATP

H2OH2

H2SCO2

ATP


1

2NADP+2ADP2Pi+2H2O2NADPH2H+2ATPO2


1

chl

NAD++H2S+ADP+Pi NADPH+H++ATP+S

hv


2

0.5 mm


ATP

550-600 nmATP


2


ATP



1


Raulin

5%0.27%0.27%0.04%0.027%0.017%0.005%0.005%

CzapekDox

5%0.2%0.1%0.05%0.05%0.001%


CzapekDoxRaulinfulvic acid

RaulinCzapekDox

Penicillium urticae0.510-8MCzapekDox6-0.510-6MCzapekDox6-


41020


2



3


4



5


1

2

3

4

5



250010100

constitutive enzymeinducible enzyme10%


1.

2.

3.


1.


  • 2.

  • 1

  • 2

  • G-


3. ( )

1)

:

GluNADPGlu

NADGlu

2)

:

3)


1

2


1.

-

2.



Corynebacterium glutamicum

Bacillus polymyxa


AMPGMP IMP70%10%



,


Brevibacterium flavus

PEP

Py

CoAAsp

ATP

CO2


AspAsp- pAsaDAPLys

Hse

Thr Ile

Py Leu


AMPGMPThrLysMetKm


:

:

,,

, ,


1.(induction)

E.coli-


(inducer)- -D-IPTGisopropylthiogalactoside

EMP


end-product repression


catabolite repression,diauxic growth


1operon

(structural genes)DNA mRNA;DNA

(promoter)DNARNARNA


operator

regulator gene,,,


2inducercorepressor

effecor


3repressoraporepresseor

(regulatory potein) OO

:

:


) (Try)()

cAMP

cAMP cAMPCAPRNA

cAMPcAMPCAP(),.


(


HSDH

AK

C.glutamicum



,

1.

: GluGlu

Mn2+Mn2+


2.

:


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