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第五章 微生物的代谢 和发酵 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第五章 微生物的代谢 和发酵. 第一节 代谢概论 第二节 微生物分解代谢 第三节 微生物次级代谢与次级代谢产物 第四节 微生物的代谢调控与发酵生产 第五节 代谢调节在发酵工业中的应用. 第一节 代谢概论. 第二节 微生物分解代谢. 一、 生物氧化. 二、 异养微生物的生物氧化 底物脱氢的四种途径 EMP 途径 HMP 途径 ED 途径 磷酸酮解途径 有氧呼吸 无氧呼吸. 三、 自养微生物的生物氧化

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第五章 微生物的代谢 和发酵

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4414727


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EMPHMP

ED


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catabolismanabolism

= +

ATP

ATP


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------ATP

ATP


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  • 1 2 3


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NADFAD


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:

ATP

[H]


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ATP


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1. (fermentation)


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glycolysis


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EMP

HMP

ED


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ATP

ADP

ATP

ADP

ADP

ATP

ADP

ATP

NAD+

NADH+H+

EMP

Embden-Meyerhof pathway

-6-

a

-6-

-16-

EMP

ATP NADH

-3-

13-

3-

a :

b

2-

b :


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EMP

1.1.6()

2.1.623-

3.3-

+2NAD+2Pi+2ADP 2+2NADH2+2ATP

CoA

CoATCA


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HMP

  • 6--

  • HMPEMPHMP

  • 3--EMP

  • HMP-6--3-3CO26NADPH

  • HMPNADPH


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HMP

6-6-5-CO2

3-EMPHMP


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1CO2HMP

HMP

6 -6-+12NADP++6H2O

5 -6-+12NADPH+12H++12CO2+Pi


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NADH+H+

ADP

ATP

NAD(P)+

CH2OH

CH2OP

CH2OP

HO

o

o

o

OH

OH

OH

OH

OH

OH

OH

OH

H- C=O

H-C-OH

HO

H-C-OH

H-C-OH

CH2OP

CH2OH

CH2OH

CH2OH

C=O

C=O

C=O

HO-C-H

H-C-OH

H-C-OH

H-C-OH

H-C-OH

H-C-OH

D CH2OP

H-C-OP

H-C-OP

H

H

NADH+H+

NAD(P)+

COOH

HO

6--

6--

5--

HMP

5--

5--

5--

5--

5--

5--

3--

6--

4--

6--

3--

6--

6--

6--


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HMP

1 6-

2 6-5- 5-

5-

3 5-6-+3-(EMP


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HMP

  • NADPH2

  • EMP-16--3-

  • -


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  • 3~7

  • HMP


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ED

ED2--3--6-KDPG

1952Pseudomonas saccharophila EDEMPHMPEMP


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ED

  • ED

  • ED

KDPG

-3-

KDPG

EMP

  • EDED21ATP1NADPH1NADH

  • ED

  • EDEMPHMP

  • EDEMP


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ED

  • 2--3--6-3- 3-EMP121ATP

  • ED2--3--6-KDPG3-EDKDPG

  • EMPHMPTCATCA


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ED

  • 2--3--6-

  • 6-KDPG

    • pH5


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2

PK

HK


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2

2-6-

6-6--

EMP

4--

HMP

2-5-

2 -3- 2

2

2


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:

11ATPEMP;

CO2


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2323-- 3--ADPATP

2.5ATP


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TCA

Krebs

NADH+4H

12ATP

FADH

2ATP

C

CO~CoA

CH

3

3

GTP

ATP

3CO

2


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CoACoA

CoA

CO2H2O

1CoA

12ATP


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TCA

1CoA2CO2,1

2NAD+NADH+H+FAD

3

4

5

6Glu


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ATP

NADHNADPHFAD

,

O2;

O2

NO3-SO42-


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C

H

O

1/2

O

6

12

6

2

-

[H]

H

O

2

A

CO

NO

SO

-

2

-

2

3

4

-

[H]

[H]

NO

SO

-

2

-

CH

B

2

3

4

-

[H]

C

A

B

C

AH

BH

CH

2

2

2

-

[H]

CO

2


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  • EMPHMPEDPK

  • NADH+H+NADPH+H+NADH+H+NADPH+H+


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C6H12O6

2CH3COCOOH

2CH3CHO

2CH3CH2OH

NAD

EMP

2ATP

NADH2

-2CO2

pH3.5~4.5


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211

CH3CHO+H2O+NAD+ CH3COOH+NADH+H+

CH3CHO+NADH+H+ CH3CH2OH+ NAD+

3- --

22+++2CO2


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(The Pasteur effect )


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+ATP

2H

ED

2--3--6--

3-

2H

2ATP

2CO2

2


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  • pH3.5-4.5

    ~ ~

    EMP

    C6H12O6+2ADP+2Pi 2C2H5OH+2CO2+2ATP

  • (Zymomonas mobilis)

    ED

    +ADP+Pi 2+2CO2+ATP

  • (Leuconostoc mesenteroides)

    HMP

    +ADP+Pi ++CO2+ATP


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EMP

HMP

: HK


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2 2

4ATP

2NAD+ 2NADH

4ADP

3-

2( 1,3--

2ATP 2ADP


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CoA

ATP ADP

NAD+ NADH

NAD+ NADH

6-

6-

5-

-CO2

3-

-2H

2ADP 2ATP


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/

EMP

2

2

ATP

Lactobacillus debruckii

1

HMP

1

1

ATP

Leuconostoc

mesenteroides

1

CO

2

1

HMP

1

2

ATP

Lactobacillus brevis

1

CO2


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2,3-

CoA

3-

2,3-

EMP

-

-

CO2 H2

-

2,3-


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CoA

CO2 H2

  • EMPH2CO2

PEP

+2H

-

pH6.2


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2.

aerobic respiration

anaerobic respiration


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2.


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(1)

()

EMP,TCA

NAD,FAD,Q

TCA


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(1)

CO2


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  • ATP

  • NADO2FMN CoQb c 1 c a a


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MH2NAD FMN C0Q b

(-0.32v) (0.0v)

C1C a a3 O2 H2O

(+0.26)(+0.28) (+0.82v)

NAD+/NADHE0O2/H2OE0NADH O2

NADH+H+FADH2

ADPATP


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NADFADH2 H2O

NADH2FAD1/2O2

+2H+

EMP

2NADH2

CoA

2NADH2

TCA

6NADH2

TCA

2FADH2

FPFe-SCyt.bCyt.cCyt.aCyt.a3


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  • NADNDAH+H+

  • FADFMN

  • Fe-S2Fe+2S

  • Q10~15


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ATP

ATP.ATP.,ATP.,ATP,

1. :

2.ATP:


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:ATP

,.

:

H2H2S


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ATP

ATP

ADPATP


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  • ADPATP

  • Q

  • ATP3ATP1ATPATP


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  • ATP

  • pHATPATPATP


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TCA

CO2

-


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CO2TCA

CO2

CO2++ATP+H2O Mg+++ADP+Pi

:

CO2 +PEP+ H2O +H3PO4

:

CO2 ++NADPH+H+ + NADP+


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CoA

CoA


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CoACoA

+

+

+

2


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2

NO3- NO2-SO42-S2O32-

1796.14KJ


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2

  • NO3-NO2-SO42-S2O32-CO2fumarate


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2


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NO3-


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PH3


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ATP


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CO2


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ATP

[H]

CO2[CH2O]

ATP

ATP

ATP


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1

NH3NO2-


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2

sulfur bacteria

Winogradsky

CO2

CO2


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Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

Fe2+pH3.0

pH4-5Fe2+Fe3+


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Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

FeS2

Fe(OH)3

FeS2O2CO2


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ATP


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1substrate level phosphorylation

ATPGTP


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2oxidative phosphorylation


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3photophosphorylation

ATP


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3photophosphorylation


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3photophosphorylation


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3photophosphorylation


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3photophosphorylation

1

ATP

H2OH2

H2SCO2

ATP


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1

2NADP+2ADP2Pi+2H2O2NADPH2H+2ATPO2


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1

chl

NAD++H2S+ADP+Pi NADPH+H++ATP+S

hv


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2

0.5 mm


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ATP

550-600 nmATP


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2


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ATP


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1


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Raulin

5%0.27%0.27%0.04%0.027%0.017%0.005%0.005%

CzapekDox

5%0.2%0.1%0.05%0.05%0.001%


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CzapekDoxRaulinfulvic acid

RaulinCzapekDox

Penicillium urticae0.510-8MCzapekDox6-0.510-6MCzapekDox6-


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41020


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2


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3


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4


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5


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1

2

3

4

5


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250010100

constitutive enzymeinducible enzyme10%


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1.

2.

3.


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1.


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  • 2.

  • 1

  • 2

  • G-


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3. ( )

1)

:

GluNADPGlu

NADGlu

2)

:

3)


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1

2


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1.

-

2.


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Corynebacterium glutamicum

Bacillus polymyxa


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AMPGMP IMP70%10%


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,


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Brevibacterium flavus

PEP

Py

CoAAsp

ATP

CO2


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AspAsp- pAsaDAPLys

Hse

Thr Ile

Py Leu


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AMPGMPThrLysMetKm


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:

:

,,

, ,


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1.(induction)

E.coli-


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(inducer)- -D-IPTGisopropylthiogalactoside

EMP


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end-product repression


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catabolite repression,diauxic growth


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1operon

(structural genes)DNA mRNA;DNA

(promoter)DNARNARNA


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operator

regulator gene,,,


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2inducercorepressor

effecor


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3repressoraporepresseor

(regulatory potein) OO

:

:


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) (Try)()

cAMP

cAMP cAMPCAPRNA

cAMPcAMPCAP(),.


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(


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HSDH

AK

C.glutamicum


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,

1.

: GluGlu

Mn2+Mn2+


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2.

:


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