RESERVOIR PETROPHYSICS
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RESERVOIR PETROPHYSICS PETE 311. PETROPHYSICS. Petrophysics is the study of rock properties and rock interactions with fluids (gases, liquid hydrocarbons, and aqueous solutions). Modified from Tiab and Donaldson, 1996, p. 1. RESERVOIR PETROPHYSICS PETE 311 COURSE DESCRIPTION.

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Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

RESERVOIR PETROPHYSICS

PETE 311


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

PETROPHYSICS

Petrophysics is the study of rock properties and

rock interactions with fluids (gases, liquid

hydrocarbons, and aqueous solutions).

Modified from Tiab and Donaldson, 1996, p. 1


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

RESERVOIR PETROPHYSICS

PETE 311

COURSE DESCRIPTION

  • Systematic theoretical and laboratory study of physical properties of petroleum reservoir rocks

  • Lithology

  • Porosity

  • Compressibility

  • Permeability

  • Fluid saturations

  • Capillary characteristics

  • Rock stress

  • Fluid-rock interaction


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

  • RESERVOIR PETROPHYSICS

  • Course Objectives

  • By the last day of class, the student should be able to:

  • Define porosity; discuss the factors which affect porosity and describe the methods of determining values of porosity;

  • Define the coefficient of isothermal compressibility of reservoir rock and describe methods for determining values of formation compressibility;

  • Reproduce the Darcy equation in differential form, explain its meaning, integrate the equation for typical reservoir systems, discuss and calculate the effect of fractures and channels, and describe methods for determining values of absolute permeability;


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

  • RESERVOIR PETROPHYSICS

  • Course Objectives

  • Explain boundary tension and wettability and their effect on capillary pressure, describe methods of determining values of capillary pressure, and convert laboratory capillary pressure values to reservoir conditions;

  • Describe methods of determining fluid saturations in reservoir rock and show relationship between fluid saturation and capillary pressure;

  • Define resistivity, electrical formation resistivity factor, resistivity index, saturation exponent, and cementation factor and show their relationship and uses; discuss laboratory measurement of electrical properties of reservoir rocks; and demonstrate the calculations necessary in analyzing laboratory measurements;


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

  • RESERVOIR PETROPHYSICS

  • Course Objectives

  • Define effective permeability, relative permeability, and permeability ratio; reproduce typical relative permeability curves and show effect of saturation history on relative permeability; illustrate the measurement of relative permeability; and demonstrate some uses of relative permeability data.

  • Describe three-phase flow in reservoir rock and explain methods of displaying three-phase effective permeability.

  • Demonstrate the techniques of averaging porosity, permeability, and reservoir pressure data.

  • Demonstrate capability to perform calculations relating to all concepts above.

  • 11. Design and conduct experiments to determine porosity, rock compressibility, absolute and relative permeability, fluid saturation, capillary pressure, and electrical properties of reservoir rocks; analyze and interpret experimental data; and prepare laboratory reports.

  • (These are minimum skills to be achieved/demonstrated)


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

PETROPHYSICS

  • Why do we study petrophysics?


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

Geographic Extent of Petroleum System

Extent of Play

Extent of Prospect/Field

O

O

O

Stratigraphic

Extent of

Petroleum

Overburden Rock

System

Essential

Seal Rock

Elements

of

Reservoir Rock

Basin Fill

Sedimentary

Petroleum

Pod of Active

System

Source Rock

Source Rock

Underburden Rock

Petroleum Reservoir (O)

Basement Rock

Fold-and-Thrust Belt

Top Oil Window

(arrows indicate relative fault motion)

Top Gas Window

(modified from Magoon and Dow, 1994)

Cross Section Of A Petroleum System

(Foreland Basin Example)


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

PETROLEUM SYSTEM

From Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary

Timing of formationof the major elements of a petroleum system, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela.


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

Sedimentary Rock

Rock Formed from the Weathered

Products of Pre-Existing Rocks and

Transported by Water, Wind, and

Glaciers

(Such as

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

Shale, Siltstone, and Sandstone)

Consist of Broken Fragments of

Pre-Existing Rock (cf. Detrital)

Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks (and

Evaporites) May Form by Chemical

Precipitation or Organic Activity

DEFINITIONS - SEDIMENTARY ROCK


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

Clastic Rocks

Consist Primarily of Silicate Minerals

Are Classified on the Basis of:

- Grain Size

- Mineral Composition

Carbonate Rocks

Consist Primarily of Carbonate Minerals

-2

(i.e. Minerals With a CO Anion Group)

3

- Predominately Calcite (Limestone)

- Predominately Dolomite (Dolomite

or Dolostone)

Classified by Grain Size and Texture

CLASTIC AND CARBONATE ROCKS


Sedimentary rock types

Sandstone

and conglomerate

(clastic)

~11%

Limestone and

Dolomite

(carbonate)

~14%

Mudstone

(Siltstone

and shale;

clastic)

~75%

SEDIMENTARY ROCK TYPES

Relative Abundances


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

Name

Millimeters

Micrometers

4,096

Boulder

256

Cobble

Commonly, phi-sizes are used

for sediment analysis

64

Pebble

4

Granule

2

Very Coarse Sand

1

Coarse Sand

0.5

500

Medium Sand

250

0.25

Fine Sand

125

0.125

Very Fine Sand

62

0.062

Coarse Silt

31

0.031

Medium Silt

0.016

16

Fine Silt

0.008

8

Very Fine Silt

4

0.004

Clay

(modified from Blatt, 1982)

Grain-Size Classification for Clastic Sediments


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

DUNHAM’S CLASSIFICATION - CARBONATES

Carbonate rocks can be classified according to the texture and grain size.

From Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary


Generation migration and trapping of hydrocarbons

Fault

(impermeable)

Oil/water

contact (OWC)

Migration route

Seal

Reservoir

rock

Hydrocarbon

accumulation

in the

reservoir rock

Source rock

GENERATION, MIGRATION, AND TRAPPING OF HYDROCARBONS

Seal

Seal

Top of maturity


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

DESCRIBING A RESERVOIR

Structural Characterization


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

STRUCTURAL HYDROCARBON TRAP

This structuraltrap is formed by an anticline and a normalfault.

From Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

DOMAL TRAP

  • Are hydrocarbons in this field oil or gas?

  • What is the volume of hydrocarbons

  • In this trap?

  • What are the reserves?

Closure. In map view (top), closure is the area within the deepest structural contour that forms a trapping geometry, in this case 1300 ft [390 m]. In cross section A-A', closure is the vertical distance from the top of the structure to the lowest closing contour, in this case about 350 ft [105 m]. The point beyond which hydrocarbons could leak from or migrate beyond the trap is the spill point.

From Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

WATER DRIVE

What is the Drive

Mechanism?

A reservoir-drive mechanism whereby the oil is driven through the reservoir by an active aquifer. As the reservoir depletes, the water moving in from the aquifer below displaces the oil until the aquifer energy is expended or the well eventually produces too much water to be viable.

From Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

GAS EXPANSION DRIVE

What is the Drive

Mechanism?

A gas-drive system utilizes the energy of the reservoir gas, identifiable as either as free or solution gas, to produce reservoir liquids.

Are there other

drive mechanisms?

From Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

TYPES OF HYDROCARBONS

  • Composition

  • Molecular structure

  • Physical properties


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF

HYDROCARBONS

  • Color

  • Refractive Index

  • Odor

  • Density (Specific Gravity)

  • Boiling Point

  • Freezing Point

  • Flash Point

  • Viscosity


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

˚ API = 141.5

g

- 131.5

  • What are the standard reporting conditions?

˚ API = API gravity

g

= specific gravity

FLUID DENSITY


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

FLUID VISCOSITY

  • Importance

  • Units – centipoises (μ, cp)

  • Strongly temperature dependent

  • Standard reporting conditions


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

DRILLING RIGS

Drillship

Semisubmersible

Jackup

Submersible

Land Rig

From Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

ROTARY DRILL BIT, WORN

From Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary


Reservoir petrophysics 5cr 5crpete 311

Next Class:

  • RESERVOIR POROSITY

  • Definition: Porosity is the fraction of the bulk volume of a material (rock) that is occupied by pores (voids).

  • Origins and descriptions

  • Factors that effect porosity

  • Methods of determination


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