Systems Engineering for the Transportation Critical Infrastructure
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Systems Engineering for the Transportation Critical Infrastructure The Development of a Methodology and Mathematical Model for Assessing the Impacts of K Links Disconnects have on Defined Links of the Network. Terms and Definitions. Critical Infrastructure (CI) System Transportation CI

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Terms and definitions

Systems Engineering for the Transportation Critical InfrastructureThe Development of a Methodology and Mathematical Model for Assessing the Impacts of K Links Disconnects have on Defined Links of the Network


Terms and definitions

Terms and Definitions

  • Critical Infrastructure (CI)

  • System

  • Transportation CI

  • System of Systems (SoS)

  • Major Cities

  • City Boundary

  • Network


Terms and definitions1

Terms and Definitions

  • Movement of Goods

  • Trucks

  • Peak Traffic

  • Normal Traffic

  • Other Traffic

  • Days of Operation


Terms and definitions2

Terms and Definitions

  • Node

  • Arc  Link

  • Disconnect

  • Steady State

  • Highway

  • Defined Links

  • Worst Link

  • Best Link


Objective

Objective

  • The objective of this dissertation is to develop a methodology, using a SE approach, and apply the methodology to develop a mathematical model, using performance metrics such as travel time and flow, to simulate the impacts K Links disconnects have on highway networks of major metropolitan cities


Objective1

Objective

  • Two Objective Steps

    1. Systems Engineering Approach

    2. K Links with Highest Affect on Network


Research significance

Research Significance

  • Contribution: This dissertation provides officials a decision-making methodology and tool for resource allocation and risk mitigation

    • Metrics that measure the performance of the network given disconnects occurring

    • Ranking of K Links affecting the network the most


Research significance1

i, j

Research Significance

  • Decision Making Methodology and Tool


Research significance2

Research Significance

  • Algorithm for finding efficiently the K Links with the greatest impact on the network

Accuracy Vs. Time

Accuracy

Minutes


Brief literature review

Brief Literature Review

  • SE

    • Osmundson et al, The Journal of The International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE), 2004

    • Tahan et al, The Journal of The INCOSE, 2005

    • Bahill et al, The Journal of The INCOSE, 2005

    • Blanchard et al, “Stems Engineering and Analysis”, 1990

    • INCOSE, “Systems Engineering Handbook”, 2004

    • Hazelrigg, “Sys. Eng.: An Approach to Information-Based Design” 1996

    • Miller et al, “Systems Engineering Management”, 2002

    • Stock et al, “Strategic Logistics Management”, 1993

    • Ibarra et al, Conference for Systems Engineering, 2005

    • Blanchard, “Logistics Engineering and Management”, 2004

    • US Department of Homeland Security, “Budget in Brief, Fiscal Year 2005”


Brief literature review1

Brief Literature Review

  • Modeling

    • Osmundson et al, The Journal of The International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE), 2004

    • Bahill et al, The Journal of The INCOSE, 2005

    • Sathe et al, Transportation Research Board, 2005

    • Jain et al, Transportation Science, 1997

    • Arroyo et al, Transportation Research Board, 2005

    • Rardin, “Optimizations in Operations Research”, 1998

    • Rinaldi et al, IEEE Control System Magazine. 2001

    • Murray-Tuite, Dissertation, 2003


The systems engineering process

The Systems Engineering Process

  • Defining the System – System of Systems


The systems engineering process1

The Systems Engineering Process

  • Need Analysis

  • Stakeholders

    • City

    • State and Federal

    • Business

    • Society (Indirectly)


The systems engineering process2

The Systems Engineering Process

  • Requirements

    • Mission Definition

    • Performance and Physical Parameters

    • Use Requirements


The systems engineering process3

The Systems Engineering Process

  • Transportation CI SoS

  • INPUT

  • Disconnects

  • Hrs of Op.

  • PROCESS

  • Mathematical

  • model

  • OUTPUT

  • Performance

Components

Perf. of

Defined

Links

Efficiently

Finding

K Links

Movement

of Goods

Relationships

  • Flow

  • Distance

  • Links

  • Nodes

  • Efficiency

  • of model

  • Disconnects

  • Hours of

  • operation

Attributes


The systems engineering process4

The Systems Engineering Process

  • Ground Rules and Assumptions

    • Highway

    • Major Cities

    • Steady State

      • Non-Event Days

      • Construction established and on-going

      • Mon – Fri

    • Disconnect


The systems engineering process5

The Systems Engineering Process

  • Metrics

    • Performance of Network

      • Travel Time

      • Throughput

    • Solution – Processing Time of Model (as a function of OD table and network topology)

Model /

Algorithm

(OD)

Time

Links

Accuracy


The systems engineering process6

The Systems Engineering Process

System

Solution

System

Requirements

Functional Analysis

V

System Objective

Validate &

Verify

Enumeration

Processing Time

City Boundary

Enumeration

Processing Time

Section of City

Small Network

Enumeration

Actual

Model


Model

Model

  • Most naive process

    • Disconnect Link (Li,j) subject to Time (tn)

    • Simulate Network Performance

    • Connect Link (Li,j)

    • Repeat until all links tested


Model1

Model

  • Objective

    • Performance of Network based on Defined Links

  • Constraints

    • Mathematical model of how the system responds to changes in variables

  • Variables

    • Time of Day

    • Disconnected Links


Example of model

Example of Model

Time

Number of Vehicles traveling from Origin to Destination

during Off-Peak Period


Example of model routing assignment

Time, Flow

Example of Model: Routing Assignment

q

t


Example of model effects of disconnect on link a b

Time, Flow

Example of Model: Effects of Disconnect on Link (a,b)

D Avg. T = 2.5

Min/Veh

q


Example of model1

Example of Model


Example of model performance for a general metric

Example of Model: Performance for a General Metric

OUTPUTS

, …,

Sum of Performance


Example of model2

Example of Model

OUTPUTS

Worst

K Links = {2,11}, …, {1,12}

affecting the Transportation

CI the most

Performance

Best

Links

0 is threshold


Network

Information Flow

Network

L1

L2

L3

  • Output

  • Performance:

  • Travel Time/Throughput

Input

Single Disconnect; 1/0

I35W

I35E

Hwy 75

I30

L4

I=1

I20

I20

L9

L5

I=1

I35W

I35E

I45

  • Variables

  • Temporal

  • Time of Day: I =1, 2, 3 (peak, norm, other)

  • Links: l =(i,j), [(i+1), (j+1)],…, (i+n, j+n)

L8

L7

L6


Ideas for improving algorithmic model efficiencies

Ideas for Improving Algorithmic Model Efficiencies

  • Restricting the Search Space

    • Find least reliable links

    • Find largest/lightest flow

  • Approximation Methods

    • “Quickly” find “Good” solution


Validation and verification

Validation and Verification

  • SE Approach

    • Integrations Process

    • V-Chart

  • Model

    • Small Network

    • Enumeration

    • Efficiency of Model

V


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Transportation CI is important

    • To individuals’ way of life

    • To companies’ way of doing business

  • Proposed a Methodology and Mathematical Model to Determine Impact of K Links Disconnects have on the Defined Links of a Network


Conclusion1

Conclusion

  • Research Significance

    • Society: A Methodology and Tool for Officials to use in the Decision Making Process

    • Engineering: A New Algorithm for Solving Complex Systems Efficiently


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