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Georgia School of Addiction Studies August 29, 2012. Involving Families in Transitioning Incarcerated Youth Back to Their Communities: The Transitional Parenting Program at Augusta Youth Development Center David W. Proefrock, PhD; Greg Jurkovic, PhD; & Cal Miles, M A.

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Georgia school of addiction studies august 29 2012
Georgia School of Addiction Studies August 29, 2012

Involving Families in Transitioning Incarcerated Youth Back to Their Communities: The Transitional Parenting Program at Augusta Youth Development Center

David W. Proefrock, PhD; Greg Jurkovic, PhD; & Cal Miles, MA


Augusta youth development center transitional parenting program

Augusta Youth Development CenterTransitional Parenting Program


Transitioning from an institution
Transitioning From AnInstitution

  • Institutionalization

  • Life on the Outside

  • Work and School

  • Working with Community Juvenile Justice


Transitioning from an institution1
Transitioning From AnInstitution

  • Institutionalization

    Limited Decision-Making

    Structured Environment

    Predictable Scheduling

    Basic Needs Provided


Transitioning from an institution2
Transitioning From AnInstitution

  • Life on the Outside

    Social pressures

    Increased choices

    Availability of drugs and alcohol

    Family issues

    Increased expectations


Transitioning from an institution3
Transitioning From AnInstitution

  • Work and School

    School as an arena of failure in past

    Peer pressure at school

    No employment experience or skills


Transitioning from an institution4
Transitioning From AnInstitution

  • Working with Community Juvenile Justice

    Most leave YDC with period of probation remaining

    Reputation in the community has not changed

    How to take advantage of community support


Augusta youth development center transitional parenting program1
Augusta Youth Development CenterTransitional Parenting Program


Life skills
Life Skills

  • What are Life Skills?

  • Life Skills Rating Scale

  • Skills Training, Not Punishment

  • Using Skills to Plan Interventions


Life skills1
Life Skills

  • What are Life Skills?

    Also known as coping skills and psychological skills

    Things we need to know and ways we need to act in order to get along in the world and be successful


Life skills2
Life Skills

  • Life Skills Rating Scale


Life skills3
Life Skills

  • Skills Training, Not Punishment

    Punishment might teach what not to do, but it never teaches what to do

    As a parent, you are expected to be a teacher teaching life skills

    In any situation of undesirable behavior, you should be thinking “What is the best way to teach a better way of doing things?”


Life skills4
Life Skills

  • Using Skills to Plan Interventions

    For any area of problem behavior, identify what skills are necessary in order to do better

    Plan interventions that teach those skills


Augusta youth development center transitional parenting program2
Augusta Youth Development CenterTransitional Parenting Program


Communication
Communication

  • Ownership of the Problem

  • Attributions and “I vs. You” Statements

  • Communicating Consequences

  • Processing


Communication1
Communication

  • Ownership of the Problem

    What to do about a problem depends on who owns the problem

    If the child owns the problem, you should be supportive and encouraging

    If you own the problem, you should plan an intervention


Communication2
Communication

  • Attributions and “I vs. You” Statements

    Attributions are powerful, make attributions of qualities you want to encourage

    I statements take ownership and encourage problem solving

    You statements make attributions and encourage conflict


Communication3
Communication

  • Communicating Consequences

    No one responds positively to a threat

    Non-threatening communication of consequences educates and encourages planning and problem solving


Communication4
Communication

  • Processing

  • Admit what you did

  • Relate the incident to your goals

  • Make a plan for the future


Augusta youth development center transitional parenting program3
Augusta Youth Development CenterTransitional Parenting Program


Goal setting and monitoring
Goal Setting and Monitoring

  • Reasonable and Achievable Goals

  • Hierarchies and Priorities

  • Monitoring Progress

  • Planning an Intervention


Goal setting and monitoring1
Goal Setting and Monitoring

  • Reasonable and Achievable Goals

    Goals have to make sense both to you and to your child

    Goals have to be achievable, sometimes you can’t get from where you are to where you want to be in just one step

    The purpose of a goal is to encourage success, failure doesn’t help anybody


Goal setting and monitoring2
Goal Setting and Monitoring

  • Hierarchies and Priorities

    Choose your battles

    Distinguish what is really important from what is only annoying


Goal setting and monitoring3
Goal Setting and Monitoring

  • Monitoring Progress

    Track progress visually and in a public place

    Don’t rely on your perceptions use real data

    Don’t set goals that can’t be measured


Goal setting and monitoring4
Goal Setting and Monitoring

  • Planning an Intervention

    Choose a problem

    Redefine it as a skill deficit

    Plan a teaching intervention

    Implement the intervention

    Monitor progress

    Reassess and replan


Augusta youth development center transitional parenting program4
Augusta Youth Development CenterTransitional Parenting Program


Setting limits
Setting Limits

  • Parental Tasks

  • Controlling the Environment

  • Monitoring Activities

  • Necessary vs. Unnecessary Demands

  • Consistency and Variable Reinforcement


Setting limits1
Setting Limits

  • Parental Tasks

    Protect

    Educate

    Socialize

    Prepare for Independence

    Security = Love


Setting limits2
Setting Limits

  • Controlling the Environment

    When you control the environment, you control the behavior

    You have a lot more control than you think

    When you can’t control the environment, consider changing it


Setting limits3
Setting Limits

  • Monitoring Activities

    Limits must be enforced or they aren’t really limits

    If you can’t monitor it, you can’t enforce it


Setting limits4
Setting Limits

  • Necessary vs. Unnecessary Demands

    Choose your battles

    Say “yes” whenever you can, it makes “no” more powerful


Setting limits5
Setting Limits

  • Consistency and Variable Reinforcement

    The surest and fastest way to change behavior is for consequences to be immediate and consistent

    Don’t turn your kids into gamblers


Augusta youth development center transitional parenting program5
Augusta Youth Development CenterTransitional Parenting Program


Substance abuse
Substance Abuse

  • Substance Abuse in Georgia

  • Recognizing Substance Abuse

  • The Mind of the Addict

  • Substance Abuse Treatment

  • Substance Abuse in the Family


Substance abuse1
Substance Abuse

  • Substance Abuse in Georgia

    Statistics about substance abuse in Georgia

    Substance abuse on the increase

    The hidden costs of substance abuse

    Legal implications of substance abuse


Substance abuse2
Substance Abuse

  • Recognizing Substance Abuse

    Parents are often the last to know

    What you should look for

    The danger signs when use becomes abuse


Substance abuse3
Substance Abuse

  • The Mind of the Addict

    Behavior patterns of an abuser

    Physiological reasons for addictions

    How to avoid being co-dependent


Substance abuse4
Substance Abuse

  • Substance Abuse Treatment

    The 7 Challenges Program in YDC

    Treatment in the community

    AA/NA

    Community Service Boards

    Private treatment facilities

    Importance of “family systems” treatment


Substance abuse5
Substance Abuse

  • Substance Abuse in the Family

    Family predisposition to addiction

    What to do if there is an addict in the family

    What to do if you are a substance abuser

    How to handle “normal” use of alcohol and tobacco


Augusta youth development center transitional parenting program6
Augusta Youth Development CenterTransitional Parenting Program


Transitioning from an institution5
Transitioning From AnInstitution

  • Institutionalization

  • Life on the Outside

  • Work and School

  • Working with Community Juvenile Justice


Transitioning from an institution6
Transitioning From AnInstitution

  • Institutionalization

    Limited Decision-Making

    Structured Environment

    Predictable Scheduling

    Basic Needs Provided


Transitioning from an institution7
Transitioning From AnInstitution

  • Life on the Outside

    Social pressures

    Increased choices

    Availability of drugs and alcohol

    Family issues

    Increased expectations


Transitioning from an institution8
Transitioning From AnInstitution

  • Work and School

    School as an arena of failure in past

    Peer pressure at school

    No employment experience or skills


Transitioning from an institution9
Transitioning From AnInstitution

  • Working with Community Juvenile Justice

    Most leave YDC with period of probation remaining

    Reputation in the community has not changed

    How to take advantage of community support


Augusta youth development center transitional parenting program7
Augusta Youth Development CenterTransitional Parenting Program


Logical consequences
Logical Consequences

  • Don’t Punish, Teach

  • “Grandma’s Rule”

  • Experiencing Consequences

  • Coping with Frustration and Developing Life Skills


Logical consequences1
Logical Consequences

  • Don’t Punish, Teach

    Results of punishment can’t be predicted, at best, it teaches what not to do

    Teaching what to do instead develops life skills.

    Teaching is predictable


Logical consequences2
Logical Consequences

  • “Grandma’s Rule”

    First you eat your food, then you get dessert

    First you do your work, then you can play

    Use something desirable as a reward for something less desirable

    Be sure to get the order right


Logical consequences3
Logical Consequences

  • Experiencing Consequences

    Experiencing consequences is the best way to learn something

    We tend to want to protect our children from consequences, but it’s usually not a good idea

    It prevents learning and even teaches the wrong thing


Logical consequences4
Logical Consequences

  • Coping with Frustration and Developing Life Skills

    Experiencing the consequences of behavior requires coping with frustration

    Experiencing the consequences of behavior leads to learning new skills


Augusta youth development center transitional parenting program8
Augusta Youth Development CenterTransitional Parenting Program


Praise and reinforcement
Praise and Reinforcement

  • Reinforcement

  • Ignoring

  • Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment

  • Rule of Immediacy

  • Shaping


Praise and reinforcement1
Praise and Reinforcement

  • Reinforcement

    A behavior followed by a reward will occur with increased frequency

    Praise is a powerful social reward


Praise and reinforcement2
Praise and Reinforcement

  • Ignoring

    Ignoring is a negative reinforcement

    A behavior followed by the absence of a reward (nothing) will occur with decreased frequency

    It is impossible to predict what a behavior followed by punishment will do


Praise and reinforcement3
Praise and Reinforcement

  • Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment

    Punishment and negative reinforcement are NOT the same thing

    Negative reinforcement produces predictable results

    Punishment produces unpredictable results


Praise and reinforcement4
Praise and Reinforcement

  • Rule of Immediacy

    A reinforcement is most powerful when it immediately follows the behavior

    The longer the time between the behavior and the reinforcement, the weaker and less predictable it is

    You don’t know what you are actually reinforcing if there has been time for other behaviors to occur


Praise and reinforcement5
Praise and Reinforcement

  • Shaping

    Complex behavioral patterns can not be taught all at once

    Reward successive approximations to the desired behavior

    This is called shaping


Augusta youth development center transitional parenting program9
Augusta Youth Development CenterTransitional Parenting Program


Being a smart parent
Being a Smart Parent

  • Developmental Tasks

  • Age-Appropriate Expectations

  • Developing Thought Processes

  • Developing Moral Judgment


Being a smart parent1
Being a Smart Parent

  • Developmental Tasks

    There are specific tasks necessary to growing up:

    Developing Life Skills

    Developing Relationship Skills

    Developing Independent Living Skills

    Maybe Developing Parenting Skills


Being a smart parent2
Being a Smart Parent

  • Age-Appropriate Expectations

    Be aware of what children are capable of doing and adjust your expectations accordingly

    Expectations above capabilities will lead to frustration and, ultimately, failure


Being a smart parent3
Being a Smart Parent

  • Developing Thought Processes

    Teach at the level children can understand

    The ability to think and solve problems develops in a step-by-step way

    If they can not do it, no amount of teaching, rewarding, or shaping will make it happen


Being a smart parent4
Being a Smart Parent

  • Developing Moral Judgment

    Moral judgment also develops in a step-by-step way

    The ability to make complex moral decisions develops slowly

    It is not usually in place during adolescence

    Sometimes it never comes at all


Augusta youth development center transitional parenting program10
Augusta Youth Development CenterTransitional Parenting Program


Being a good parent
Being a Good Parent

  • Developing Respect for Authority

  • Dangers of Variable Reinforcement

  • Parental Wimps

  • Developmental Struggles During Adolescence


Being a good parent1
Being a Good Parent

  • Developing Respect for Authority

    Understanding and using the power structure in social situations

    Maximizing social desirability

    Knowing when to shut up


Being a good parent2
Being a Good Parent

  • Dangers of Variable Reinforcement

    How variable reinforcement increases the frequency of behaviors

    Don’t turn your children into gamblers


Being a good parent3
Being a Good Parent

  • Parental Wimps

    Setting limits

    Expectations and standards of behavior

    Goals

    Being consistent

    Doing your job


Being a good parent4
Being a Good Parent

  • Developmental Struggles During Adolescence

    What the adolescent developmental period is all about

    What a parent can do to facilitate a successful adolescence

    What to do when things go wrong


Augusta youth development center transitional parenting program11
Augusta Youth Development CenterTransitional Parenting Program


Gang activity
Gang Activity

  • Gangs

  • Recognizing Gang Activity

  • Avoiding Gang Activity

  • Getting Out of a Gang


Gang activity1
Gang Activity

  • Gangs

    How common are gangs?

    Are gangs really that big a problem?

    Real gang activity vs. gang “wannabes”

    The hidden costs of gang activity


Gang activity2
Gang Activity

  • Recognizing Gang Activity

    Is your child in a gang?

    Gang colors and clothing

    Graffiti and gang signs


Gang activity3
Gang Activity

  • Avoiding Gang Activity

    Supervision and parental involvement

    Structured activities

    School involvement


Gang activity4
Gang Activity

  • Getting Out of a Gang

    Is it possible to get out of a gang once you’re in?

    Ways to limit and stop gang activity

    What you can do as a parent


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