The mexican american war
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The Mexican-American War. Interactive PowerPoint Click Start to begin the journey. Start. Next. Home Page. With this PowerPoint you will learn about: The reasons for people flocking to Texas Why Mexico closed its’ borders Who were the main people involved What were the major battles

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The Mexican-American War

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The mexican american war

The Mexican-American War

Interactive PowerPoint

Click Start to begin the journey

Start


Home page

Next

Home Page

  • With this PowerPoint you will learn about:

    • The reasons for people flocking to Texas

    • Why Mexico closed its’ borders

    • Who were the main people involved

    • What were the major battles

    • What was the overall outcome of the war

  • To Continue click on the arrow


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Title Page

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Expansion in Texas

Main Individuals

How It Started

Major Battles

Outcomes of the War


Expansion in texas

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Expansion In Texas

  • For Americans, land represented potential income, wealth, self-sufficiency and freedom. Expansion into the western frontiers offered opportunities for self-advancement.

  • Nearly 4,000,000 Americans moved to western territories between 1820 and 1850.


Expansion in texas1

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Expansion In Texas

  • Mexico achieved its independence from Spain in 1821, but the country suffered terribly from the struggle (economic struggles)

  • Mexico won vast northern territories with its independence from Spain. These borderlands were under populated and were not very productive initially


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Expansion In Texas

  • This area needed help because of:

    • Native American attacks (Comanche)

    • Too few presidios (Mexican forts)

    • Too few Tejanos (Anglo / Mexican people) to farm the land (raising cattle)

    • Frontier area was poor and not well connected to the central government

  • Solution…


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Expansion In Texas

  • Mexican Government offers land grants to agents called empresarios

  • The empresarios organized land for people to settle so that more people could come

  • US settlers thrilled (started to call themselves Texans)

  • Only two conditions for the land:

    • Obey Mexican Laws

    • Official religion Roman Catholic


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Expansion In Texas

  • US settlers flocked because of the availability of cheap land

  • Southern plantation owners were excited because they thought this area would soon become a slave territory and eventually a state

  • Northerners were cautious about heading into this area still controlled by another nation (Mexico)


How it started

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How It Started

  • Lots of US settlers started to flock to Texas (1835 – 1000 people a month)

  • Cultural differences started to conflict:

    • More English spoken than Spanish

    • US settlers brought slaves in, but Mexico abolished slavery in 1824

    • More Protestants than Roman Catholics

    • Texans wanted more self-government


How it started1

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How It Started

  • Mexico started to try to gain further control by:

    • imposing heavy import taxes on goods coming from US

    • sealing the US – Texas border

  • Intentions were good, but impractical because of a lack of enforcement (too large of an area to govern)


How it started2

Texans wanted to move towards independence

Not join the US right away, but to be a separate nation (The Lone Star State)

If this happens they could:

Trade freely with the US

Establish their own schools

Collect and issue their own taxes

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How It Started


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How It Started

  • Sam Houston along with Stephen Austin became the leaders of the push for Texas independence

  • Mexico did not want to give it up and a conflict occurred at a small Spanish mission called the Alamo in San Antonio.

  • Santa Anna lead the force (of 4,000) that would soon put down this uprising, but history tells a different story…


Remember the alamo

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Remember the Alamo

  • In 1835,187 fighters gathered at the Alamo and fought for 13 days

  • Famous individuals included: Davy Crockett, Colonel William Barrett Travis and Sam Bowie


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Remember the Alamo

  • Santa Anna deployed his troops around the structure and, when his artillery arrived, launched an intensive assault. The Texans, who were reinforced by 32 men on March 1, withstood the Mexicans until March 6, when the enemy succeeded in breaching the mission walls

  • All of the 187 defenders died during this siege, only a few women and children survived

  • This event became a rallying cry for those who supported Texas Independence


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Remember the Alamo

  • After a victory at Goliad, Santa Anna was surprised by Commander Sam Houston at San Jacinto

  • Within 18 minutes, Houston and his men were able to kill 600 Mexican soldiers and captured Santa Anna

  • In exchange for his life, Santa Anna agreed to free Texas in the Treaty of Velasco


Republic of texas

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Republic of Texas

  • The Lone Star Republic was born and Sam Houston became the first President

  • Texans wanted the US to annex (incorporate) Texas as the 28th State, but slavery issues clouded the debate until President James K. Polk was elected in 1844

  • Mexico was furious and this action lead to the Mexican American War of 1845


Major battles begin

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Major Battles Begin

  • Mexico and the US disagreed on the southern border of Texas:

    • US recognized the Rio Grand River

    • Mexico recognized the Nueces River (farther north than the Rio Grand)

  • President Polk sent John Slidell to negotiate terms with Mexico


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Major Battles Begin

  • John Slidell wanted to:

    • Purchase the territories of California and New Mexico

    • Agree upon which river would be the border of Texas

  • He was not seen by the Mexican Government


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Major Battles Begin

  • President Polk wanted Texas either way, so he ordered Zachary Taylor to occupy the Rio Grand area of the border

  • Mexico saw this as a violation of their treaty they signed and opened fire

  • A small fight broke out near Matamoros


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Major Battles Begin

  • 9 Soldiers were killed and Polk called for the American people to rise up because American blood had been spilled on American soil

  • Public opinion was in favor of war.

  • Congress was unsure because of slavery and the way this incident started

  • But the Mexican American War begins…


The battle of palo alto

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The Battle of Palo Alto

  • On May 8, before Polk signed the declaration of war, the first major engagement of the Mexican War began. This was the Battle of Palo Alto, which took place along the Gulf Coast north of Matamoros and the Río Grande

  • Taylor pitted his approximately 2200 troops against Arista’s 3200 Mexican soldiers. The next day another pre-war battle occurred south of Palo Alto at Resaca de la Palma, sending the Mexicans reeling back to Matamoros

  • Finally, on May 13, Polk signed a declaration of war


The battle of palo alto1

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The Battle of Palo Alto

  • This battle showed the superiority of the US artillery against the cavalry advancements of the Mexican army

  • Arista, the Mexican Commander, lost between 250 and 400 men at Palo Alto, double the number of American losses


The capture of monterrey

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The Capture of Monterrey

  • Zachary Taylor planned a two-pronged assault for September 21, with General William J. Worth’s Division to attack from the west and southwest while the regulars under the temporary command of John Garland demonstrated against Monterrey’s eastern defenses.  Worth’s assault won the important position atop Federation Hill. He then moved on to capture Independence Hill, giving U.S. troops command of the heights overlooking the city. 


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The Capture of Monterrey

  • The strategy was successful, and on September 24 the Mexicans surrendered that portion of the army

  • Taylor's victories made him a hero throughout the nation


The capture of vera cruz

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The Capture of Vera Cruz

  • The vitally important Mexican port and stronghold of Vera Cruz fell to American forces on March 28, 1847, after a two-week siege. General Winfield Scott, with the assistance of Commodore David E. Conner’s Home Squadron, landed an army of 10,000 men at Collado Beach to the south of Vera Cruz on March 9.


The capture of vera cruz1

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The Capture of Vera Cruz

  • The American shelling caused little damage to Fort San Juan de Ulúa, but the three-day bombardment breached the city walls, smothered counter-battery fire, and collapsed buildings inside Vera Cruz

  • Vera Cruz served as a vital supply base for Scott’s invasion of Mexico and became crucial to U.S. victory


The capture of vera cruz2

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The Capture of Vera Cruz


Entrance into mexico city

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Entrance into Mexico City

  • The final blow to General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna’s defense of Mexico City came on September 13 and 14

  • Americans killed or captured some 3,000 Mexican troops in this close, brutal, and deadly combat, while suffering 800 casualties of their own


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Entrance into Mexico City

  • With the Americans inside the gates and in control of the roads to the south and west, officials believed that their cause was lost and that the capital city would soon become a battleground

  • In the early hours of September 14, instead of having to fight his way through town, Scott instead received a delegation of Mexican politicians who surrendered the city unconditionally


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Entrance into Mexico City


Main individuals

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Main Individuals

  • Stephen Austin

    • In 1833, a convention of Texas colonists delegated Austin to persuade Mexican authorities to grant them self-government

    • Assumed command of the Texans settlers' army

    • Later became a governor of Texas


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Main Individuals

  • Winfield Scott

    • Nicknamed “Old Fuss and Feathers” because of his full dress appearance

    • Helped lead the victory at Vera Cruz

    • His army did not loose a single battle

    • Helped organized the attack on Mexico City


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Main Individuals

  • Zachary Taylor

    • Lead the campaign into the disputed area to start the war

    • Became the major hero of the Mexican-American war

    • Popular support lead to him being elected President of the US for the Whig party


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Main Individuals

  • Antonio López deSanta Anna

    • Mexican general and dictator, who dominated Mexican politics for a quarter of a century

    • Overthrown in 1845, he was recalled the following year to lead the army against the United States in the Mexican War


Outcomes of the war

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Outcomes of the War

  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war, set the southern boundary of Texas, and ceded the Mexican territories of New Mexico and California to the United States

  • The United States paid Mexico an indemnity of $15 million and assumed over $3 million in claims that U.S. citizens had against the Mexican government


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Outcomes of the War

  • The treaty was ratified on March 10, 1848, by the United States and on May 19, 1848, by Mexico

  • Mexicans living in these territories were guaranteed freedom of religion, protection, bilingual elections, and open borders

  • United States acquired more than 500,000 square miles of valuable territory and emerged as a world power in the late nineteenth century


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Outcomes of the War


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Outcomes of the War

  • For the United States, this was the nation's first foreign war fought almost entirely on foreign territory

  • More than 5,800 Americans were killed or wounded in battle, and 11,000 soldiers died from diseases

  • The enormous financial cost, estimated at more than $75 million


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Outcomes of the War

  • Rich gold and silver deposits in California and Nevada were an unexpected surprise that greatly contributed to the national economy and to the westward movement of the population

  • However, it also upset the balance between free and slave states, which helped bring on the catastrophe of the American Civil War


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Outcomes of the War

  • The War with Mexico has been viewed by many historians as:

    • A selfish conquest for National territory

    • Did not promote the common good for any particular people, just US landowners

    • A bigger country picking on a smaller newer country

    • Americas opportunity to show the world they can use National power in war


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