success story eradication of hydrilla at lake murray and continued success in the rest of the state
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Success Story: Eradication of Hydrilla at Lake Murray ( and continued success in the rest of the State). Western Regional Panel La Jolla, CA Sep 10, 2003. Success Story. CDFA legal authority to eradicate hydrilla Quick overview of hydrilla

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success story eradication of hydrilla at lake murray and continued success in the rest of the state

Success Story: Eradication of Hydrilla at Lake Murray (and continued success in the rest of the State)

Western Regional Panel

La Jolla, CA

Sep 10, 2003

success story
Success Story
  • CDFA legal authority to eradicate hydrilla
  • Quick overview of hydrilla
  • Lake Murray (thanks to Jeffrey Pasek from the City of San Diego Water Dept.)
  • Overview of current hydrilla eradication projects

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success story lake murray
Success Story: Lake Murray
  • Why review Lake Murray ?
    • Good example of a successful large scale eradication effort
    • Demonstrates essential components of a successful eradication program

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cdfa hydrilla eradication program
CDFA Hydrilla Eradication Program
  • Legal authority
    • California Food and Agriculture Code
      • Section 6048: Secretary of Agriculture authorized to survey and eradicate hydrilla (1977)
      • Section 405: Secretary of Agriculture authorized to prevent introduction and spread of noxious weeds
    • California Code of Regulations
      • Section 4500: lists hydrilla as State noxious weed
    • Title 7, Code of Federal Regulations
      • Section 360: lists hydrilla as Federal noxious weed (1974)

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hydrilla a federal and state aquatic noxious weed
Hydrilla: a Federal and State Aquatic Noxious Weed
  • Two forms
    • Monoecious
    • Dioecious
  • Forms impenetrable mats
  • Tubers form a long term bank
  • Spread mostly by human activity

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lake murray
Lake Murray

171 surface acres

65 feet, max water depth

3.2 shoreline miles

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history of the project
History of the Project
  • Hydrilla first detected in Lake Murray in 1976
  • Limited quarantine imposed in 1977
  • Full quarantine imposed in 1979
    • Lake closed to water-based public recreation
    • Boats, fishing, water contact prohibited
  • Project goals
    • Prevent spread of hydrilla to other waters
    • Eradicate hydrilla in Lake Murray

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history of the project cont
History of the Project - cont.
  • Eradication began in 1979
    • 1977-1994: reservoir water level drawdown
    • 1979-1984: herbicide applications
    • 1985-1991: mechanical removal using SCUBA divers and suction dredge
    • 1992-1994: on-going inspections
  • Water-based recreation gradually re-established, beginning in mid-1980’s
  • Last plant found July 1991
  • Declaration of eradication November 1994

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initial infestation 1977
Initial Infestation: 1977
  • Covered 80 acres(of a total of 170 surface acres)
  • All of the lake area less than 20 feet deep
  • Continuous mat along shoreline
  • Probably introduced from aquarium

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w ater level drawdown 1977 1994
Water Level Drawdown: 1977-1994
  • Water level dropped 30 feet
  • Late summer
  • Exposed plants killed by drying
  • Some roots and tubers survive

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water level drawdown
Water Level Drawdown

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herbicides 1979 1984

Komeen

Herbicides: 1979-1984

®

Vapam

®

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eradication initial phase
Eradication: Initial Phase
  • Combination of water level draw downs and herbicides reduced infestation by 90%
  • By 1984 only isolated individual plants remained
  • Herbicides and drawdown not effective for remaining infestation

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suction dredging 1985 1991
Suction Dredging: 1985-1991
  • SCUBA divers removed individual plants
  • Labor intensive
  • Removed remaining 10% of infestation

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suction dredging
Suction Dredging

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eradication complete 1994
Eradication Complete: 1994

1977

1994

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project costs
Project Costs
  • Direct Costs $5,700,000
    • 1979 – 1984: ~$200K per year
        • herbicide applications, quarantine, drawdown
    • 1985 – 1991: ~$600K per year
        • mechanical removal, SCUBA inspections, drawdown
    • 1992 – 1994: ~$90K per year
        • on-going surveys and draw downs
  • ~$71,000 per acre of originalinfestation

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project costs21
Project Costs
  • Indirect costs
    • Reduced use of Lake Murray as a water supply reservoir
    • Loss of revenue from public recreation program
    • Loss of use of Lake Murray for public recreation

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lessons learned
Lessons Learned
  • Quarantine can be effective to prevent spread
  • Methods used for initial eradication probably won’t work in final stages
  • Eradication can be a long and costly effort

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status of hydrilla in california

COUNTY*

YR

WATER BODY

SIZE

STATUS

CALAVERAS

88

88

96

Bear Creek/ and 3 ponds

Two ponds

Bear Creek, 2 ponded areas

23 acres

0.6 acre

26 acres

Survey

 Active

Active

IMPERIAL

77

45 ponds/reservoirs

Imperial Irrigation System

270 acres

600 miles of canals, ditches

Survey

Active

LAKE

94

Clear Lake

1,440 acres /

43,000 acres

Active

LOS ANGELES

80

83

85

Eight ponds

One pond

One pond

2 acres

<1 acre

<1 acre

Erad.

Erad.

Erad.

MADERA/

MARIPOSA

89

Eastman Lake

Chowchilla River

100/1,800 acres

26 miles

Active

Active

MONTEREY

78

Private pond

0.01 acre

Erad.

RIVERSIDE

77

84

85

One pond

One pond

Three ponds

<1 acre

<1 acre

<1 acre

Erad.

Erad.

Erad.

Status of Hydrilla in California

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status of hydrilla in california25

SAN BERNARDINO

88

One pond

<.01 acre

Erad.

SAN DIEGO

77

77

Lake Murray

One pond

160 acres

<1 acre

Erad.

Erad.

SAN FRANCISCO

88

One pond

2 acres

Erad.

SANTA BARBARA

77

93

One pond

One pond

0.12 acre

<.01 acre

Erad.

Erad.

SHASTA

85

86

94

96

Seven ponds

Four ponds

Two ponds

Four ponds

133 acres

23.5 acres

13 acres

39 acres

Erad.

Erad.

Survey

Active

SONOMA

84

Spring Lake

72 acres

Erad.

SUTTER

85

One pond

<.01 acre

Erad.

TULARE

93

96

Three ponds

Seven ponds

0.6 acre

20 acres

Erad.

Active

YUBA

76

90

97

Lake Ellis

One pond

13 ponds and

two spill basins

30.8 acres

6.0 acres

20 acres and

3.1 miles of canal

Erad.

Erad.

Active

Status of Hydrilla in California

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springville ponds before after
Springville ponds, before/after

Komeen treated

lanes

1996

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2002

chowchilla river before after
Chowchilla River, before/after

1989

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Dec 2001

lake county project
Lake County Project
  • Surveys in Clear Lake
    • Visual, Grappling hook
    • 2001, 1042 surveys
    • 2002, 790 surveys
  • Treatments: aquatic herbicides
    • Fluridone slow release pellets
    • Copper ethylenediamine

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slide30

Clear Lake

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success story rest of state
Success Story: rest of State
  • Lessons learned
    • Eradication is feasible
    • Requires early detection and rapid response
    • Requires long-term dedication of funds and manpower
    • Requires technology appropriate to the situation and phase of eradication

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success story lake murray32
Success Story: Lake Murray
  • Many thanks to Jeffrey Pasek for his slides for this portion of presentation
  • Thanks to City of San Diego and the San Diego County Agricultural Commissioner for their support in the eradication of hydrilla from Lake Murray.

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cooperators
COOPERATORS
  • U.S. Department of the Interior-Bureau of Reclamation
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Eastman Lake
  • Dept. of Boating and Waterways
  • Dept. of Water Resources
  • Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District
  • County Dept.s of Agriculture

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