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A+ Guide to Software, 4e. Chapter 7 Supporting Windows 9x/Me. Windows 9x/Me Architecture. Encompasses a number of releases: Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me Two components of the OS: shell and kernel Shell Relates to the user and applications User component: manages I/O

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a guide to software 4e

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

Chapter 7

Supporting Windows 9x/Me

windows 9x me architecture
Windows 9x/Me Architecture
  • Encompasses a number of releases:
    • Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me
  • Two components of the OS: shell and kernel
  • Shell
    • Relates to the user and applications
    • User component: manages I/O
    • Graphic Devices Interface (GDI): supports graphics
  • Kernel
    • Interacts with the hardware
    • Fulfills requests for service passed from the shell

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

virtual machines
Virtual Machines
  • Application programming interface (API) call
    • Used by application to access hardware or software
  • Virtual machine (VM)
    • Set of resources made available through APIs
    • Analogy: virtual machines are like logical drives
  • Virtual machines allocated by OS based on need
    • DOS program: provided with its own VM
    • Windows 16-bit application: shares VM and addresses
    • Windows 32-bit application: shares VM only
  • General Protection Fault: caused by 16-bit programs

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

virtual memory
Virtual Memory
  • Virtual memory: hard drive space acting like memory
  • Functions of Virtual Machine Manager (VMM)
    • Stores virtual memory in a file called a swap file
    • Moves 4KB pages into and out of physical RAM
  • Disk thrashing: caused by excess memory paging
  • Settings you can change in Virtual Memory dialog box
    • Minimum and maximum file size
    • The location of the swap file (Win386.swp)
  • Swap files can be placed on a compressed drive

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

installing windows 9x me continued
Installing Windows 9x/Me (continued)
  • Choosing a file system
    • FAT16: 16-bit cluster entries allowing 65,535 clusters
    • FAT32: 28-bit cluster entries allowing more clusters
    • FAT32 drives are less likely to have slack
  • Installing a Windows 9x/Me as a clean installation
    • Prepare your system first; e.g., verify boot sequence
    • Install Windows 98/Me from a bootable setup CD
    • If PC does not boot from CD, boot from a floppy disk
      • Then insert the CD and enter D:\Setup.exe
    • When dialog box opens, follow onscreen instructions

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

installing windows 9x me continued7
Installing Windows 9x/Me (continued)
  • Installing Windows 9x/Me as an upgrade
    • Prepare for installation; e.g., create a rescue disk
    • Start the PC, loading the current operating system
    • Close all open applications
    • Insert CD in CD-ROM drive or floppy disk in floppy drive
    • Enter the command D:\Setup.exe in Run Dialog box
    • Follow the instructions on the setup screen
  • Installation process from the setup screen forward
    • Four options: Typical, Portable, Compact, Customer
    • Installation logs: Setuplog.txt, Detlog.txt, Detcrash.log

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

installing windows 9x me continued8
Installing Windows 9x/Me (continued)
  • Downloading/installing updates for Windows 9x/Me
    • Updates include service packs or patches
    • Microsoft is no longer updating Windows 9x/Me
    • Find previous updates at windowsupdate.microsoft.com
      • Use Windows Update on Start menu to access page
  • Configuring Windows 9x/Me Startup with Msdos.sys
    • Msdos.sys is a hidden, read-only system file
    • Msdos.sys has parameters affecting how the OS boots
    • You must change Msdos.sys file attributes before use
    • Table 7-3 (partially reproduced): details file contents

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

installing and managing hardware with windows 9x me
Installing and Managing Hardware with Windows 9x/Me
  • Driver: interfaces application and OS with a device
  • Ways to begin device driver installation process
    • Install device, power on PC, launch install wizard
    • Run installation program on setup disk or CD
    • Download driver from Internet, run setup file
  • Scenario: view and change current video driver
    • Open the Control Panel and double-click Display
    • Go to Settings tab to view the installed display driver
    • To change driver, go to AvancedAdapterChange

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

installing and managing hardware with windows 9x me continued
Installing and Managing Hardware with Windows 9x/Me (continued)
  • Plug and Play (PnP)
    • Specifications simplifying the installation of hardware
  • Criteria for use of PnP
    • The system BIOS must be PnP
    • All devices and expansion cards must be PnP-compliant
    • The OS must support PnP
    • A 32-bit device driver must be available
  • DriveSpace utility
    • Used to compress FAT16 volumes in Windows 9x

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

slide11

Figure 7-20 ScanDisk results

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

installing and managing software in windows 9x me
Installing and Managing Software in Windows 9x/Me
  • Preparing for the software installation
    • Check available resources
    • Protect the original software
    • Back up the registry and system configuration files
  • Installing software
    • Open Control Panel
    • Double-click Add/Remove Programs
    • Insert software CD or disk in appropriate drive
      • Alternatively, download software file from the Internet
    • Follow directions on setup screen

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

installing and managing software in windows 9x me continued
Installing and Managing Software in Windows 9x/Me (continued)
  • Troubleshooting software installations
    • Delete all files and folders under \Windows\Temp
    • Look for guidance in Readme.htm hypertext file
  • Supporting DOS applications under Windows 9x/Me
    • Access the Properties feature of DOS program file
    • Select Program tab and then click Advanced tab
      • Example: select Specify a new MS-DOS configuration
    • Changes are stored in program’s information file (PIF)

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

files used to customize the startup process
Files Used to Customize the Startup Process
  • Autoexec.bat and Config.sys
    • Contain settings for loading 16-bit drivers and TSRs
    • Supported for backwards compatibility with DOS
  • Initialization files (those with .ini extension)
    • Custom settings used to load Windows 3.x programs
    • Supported for backwards compatibility with Windows 3.x
  • You can edit text files with various tools; e.g., Sysedit
  • Comment line: information ignored by application

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

slide16

Table 7-4 Windows .ini files

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

system monitor
System Monitor
  • Monitors how system resources are being used
  • Items monitored
    • The file system
    • Memory
    • The kernel
    • Printer sharing services
    • Network performance data

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

system configuration utility msconfig
System Configuration Utility (Msconfig)
  • Used to reduce startup to core components
    • Similar to Safe Mode
  • How to access the System Configuration Utility
    • Enter Msconfig in the Run Dialog Box
  • How to isolate a problem using Msconfig
    • Select Diagnostic startup, click OK and restart PC
    • Next, select Selective startup from the dialog box
    • Methodically add items until the problem reappears
    • Source of problem is related to the last added item
  • A few alternatives: Registry Checker, CMOS setup

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

dr watson
Dr. Watson
  • Used to troubleshoot problems running a program
  • Information logged by Dr. Watson
    • Detailed system information
    • Errors
    • Programs that caused errors
  • Using Dr. Watson
    • Start the utility
    • Reproduce the application error
    • Go to Diagnosis tab to view events
    • Cross-check information to support.microsoft.com

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

the windows 9x me registry and registry checker
The Windows 9x/Me Registry and Registry Checker
  • Registry
    • Database of configuration information and settings
    • Takes over the essential functions of .ini files
    • 16-bit applications cannot access the Registry
  • Organization of the Registry
    • Hierarchical database appearing as an inverted tree
    • Six major keys appearing in the left pane
    • Values and value data appear in the right pane
  • System.dat and User.dat
    • Files used to store the Windows 95/98 registry

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

the windows 9x me registry and registry checker continued
The Windows 9x/Me Registry and Registry Checker (continued)
  • Ways to recover registry data in Windows 95
    • OS replaces System.dat with backup System.da0
    • OS enters Safe Mode and prompts recovery process
    • If backups are missing, restore registry from setup disk
  • Ways to recover registry data in Windows 9x/Me
    • Recover using backups made by Registry Checker
    • Registry Checker types: Scanreg.exe, Scanregw.exe
  • Modifying the registry
    • Automatically performed in most cases
    • Manually edit the registry using Regedit.exe

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

troubleshooting windows 9x me
Troubleshooting Windows 9x/Me
  • Problems are categorized by phase of OS operation
    • Windows installation
    • Startup process
    • Normal Windows operations
  • Troubleshooting techniques are tailored to problem

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

slide25

Table 7-9 Some problems and solutions when installing Windows 9x/Me

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

slide26

Table 7-9 Some problems and solutions when installing Windows 9x/Me (continued)

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

troubleshooting windows 9x me startup continued
Troubleshooting Windows 9x/Me Startup (continued)
  • Press F8 during startup to open startup menu
  • Windows 9x/Me startup menu options
    • 1. Normal
    • 2. Logged (\BOOTLOG.TXT)
    • 3. Safe Mode
    • 4. Safe Mode with network support
    • 5. Step-by-step confirmation
    • 6. Command prompt only (not in Windows Me)
    • 7. Safe Mode command prompt only (not in Win Me)
    • 8. Previous version of MS-DOS

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

troubleshooting windows 9x me startup continued28
Troubleshooting Windows 9x/Me Startup (continued)
  • A few tips for troubleshooting with the startup menu
    • Try a hard boot
    • If you have not already done so, try Safe Mode next
    • Look for errors using Step-by-Step confirmation
    • Use Logged option and examine Bootlog.txt
  • Using the startup disk for troubleshooting
    • If the emergency disk is not available, make one
    • Check disk for viruses before inserting it into PC
    • Disk should have drivers needed to access CD drive

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

troubleshooting problems after windows 9x me startup
Troubleshooting Problems After Windows 9x/Me Startup
  • A few questions to ask the user
    • When did the problem start?
    • Did you move your computer system recently?
    • Has someone else been using your computer recently?
  • Some general tips for troubleshooting hardware
    • Try rebooting the computer
    • Test the device with another application
    • Check Device Manager for errors reported on device
    • The driver might be corrupted or need updating
    • Try reseating an expansion card

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

troubleshooting problems after windows 9x me startup continued
Troubleshooting Problems After Windows 9x/Me Startup (continued)
  • Some tips for troubleshooting application problems
    • Address error messages appearing during program use
    • Try uninstalling and reinstalling the software
  • Some tips for troubleshooting a shortcut icon
    • Decide if the icon on the desktop is actually a shortcut
    • Check name and location of target file for the shortcut
  • Some tips for troubleshooting a slow system
    • Check for applications unnecessarily loaded at startup
    • Verify Windows is using optimum caching on hard drive

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

slide31

Figure 7-37 Troubleshooter making a suggestion to resolve a hardware conflict

A+ Guide to Software, 4e

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