Contracted braille
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 24

Contracted Braille PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 156 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Contracted Braille. Amanda Bowdoin. Braille Literacy Movement. Occurred during the 1930’s. Raised-printed letters. When were raised-printed letters used? This really sort of begs information on Louis Braille and his role, doesn’t it? Very difficult to produce

Download Presentation

Contracted Braille

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Contracted braille

Contracted Braille

Amanda Bowdoin


Braille literacy movement

Braille Literacy Movement

  • Occurred during the 1930’s


Raised printed letters

Raised-printed letters

  • When were raised-printed letters used? This really sort of begs information on Louis Braille and his role, doesn’t it?

  • Very difficult to produce

  • Were read very slowly by touch

  • During the movement there was a resistance to change.


Contracted braille

  • 1st part of the 20th century

    • Uncontracted Braille was called Grade 1 Braille

    • Contracted Braille-Grade 2


Contracted braille

  • Grade 2 Braille was used by Bob Irwin Was he the very first? Have you ever heard of the “War of the Dots?” You might Google it and find out more.

    • Bob Irwin

      • President of the AFB

      • Provided a Braille reading code

      • Showed that Grade 2 Braille

        • Save money

        • Use less paper

          ** This occurred while the US was recovering from an economic depression in the 1930’s


From 1910 50

From 1910-50

  • Grade 1 Braille

    • included alphabet only

    • Was taught during the first three years [of what? The literary education of the student? .


From 1910 50 cont

From 1910-50cont

  • Grade 1 ½ Braille Is this supposed to be Grade 1 1/2?

    • Alphabet

    • Plus 40 one-cell contractions

    • Was when? taught during the next three years


From 1910 50 cont1

From 1910-50cont

  • Grade 2 Braille (contracted)

    • Alphabet

    • Plus 189 one cell and two cell contractions

    • Taught in year 7

      Using this method made good braille readers. How do we know this? Is there research?

      During the last 20 + years since being mainstreamed, many of the students who are now adults have great Braille Literacy Skills which have allowed independent interactions in our society. Hmmm.. I would think that most DON’T. What do you base this theory on?


Unified braille code ubc

Unified Braille Code (UBC)

  • Committees composed of members from several countries create Braille system for the English-Speaking Countries. When did this start? Why hasn’t the UBC been actually approved and instituted?

  • Responsible for a selection of recommended list of Braille Contractions to be incorporated into the revised Literary Code What is the Revised Literary Code?


Braille literacy movement in the us

Braille Literacy Movement in the US

  • Has two major groups:


Establishment movement

Establishment Movement

  • Included

    • Governmental Agencies

    • Private Agencies

    • Braille Code Specialist

    • Braille Transcribers

    • Braille Embossing Houses

      They need to keep up with the changing of technology. Have they NOT kept up? Again, how do you know? Is there research that suggests this?


Consumer educator driven movement

Consumer/Educator-Driven Movement

  • Members represent:

    • Teachers

    • Parents

    • Blind consumers of all ages

      They support teachers and consumers who have quietly made changes in the Braille Literacy code and its uses. Such as…?


Stop the press

STOP THE PRESS

CONTRACTIONS

ARE

BEING

ELIMINATED!!!


Braille committee ii

Braille Committee II

Recommends deleting:

ble

com

dd

to

into

and by


What do you think about that

What do you think about that??


Contracted braille

A growing number of educators are wanting to eliminate 4 groups of contractions in addition to the others that were recommended by Committee II


The four groups

The Four Groups:

  • Whole –word lower contractions

    includes:

    be

    were

    his

    was

    in

    enough

    These are not easily read by many students


Contracted braille

2. Double-letter lower contractions

includes

bb

cc

dd

ff

gg

3. Two-Cell Contractions that begin with Dots 5 and 6.

includes

ence

ong

ful

tion

ness

ment

ity

** there are confusion between letters proceeded by the letter signs


Contracted braille

4. Two-cell contractions that begin with dot 6

include

ation

ally

These are often interpreted as capital letters rather than contractions.


Contracted braille

  • All of these mentioned are difficult for beginning Braille readers to identify short phrases How about here? Any references?


Some ideas to recommend

Some ideas to recommend

These were made by the committee

  • Deletion of certain contractions

  • Limitations on the uses of short-form words

  • The code should be uniform as much as possible throughout the world so that materials may be shared and understood.

  • Beginning Braille students should have one-to-one correspondence and given the printed materials to the sighted peers so that they can interact in the regular ed classroom

  • 2-cell contractions should be used when the blind learner has mastered basic reading and spelling


Braille literacy crisis in the us

Braille Literacy Crisis in the US

  • Fewer than 10 percent of the 1.3 million people who are legally blind in the United States are Braille readers

    There has also been a decline in Braille Literacy


Closure

Closure

This was a poem written by Dr. Phil Hatlen for Sally Mangold who died on Jan. 29 ,2005.

Below are my words about Sally when she received the Migel Award from the American Foundation for the Blind.

FOR MY FRIEND, SALLY MANGOLD

From Phil Hatlen

(To the tune of Daisy, Daisy)

Sally, Sally, give me your answer, doI'm half crazy, is it Grade 1 or 2?It won't be a simple answerBut I know what you say will be trueBraille will prevailIt will not failAnd it's all because of you... This is WONDERFUL! A perfect way to end your presentation.


References

References

  • American Foundation for the Blind. “Estimated Number of Adult Braille Readers in the United States.” Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness 90, no. 3 (May/June 1996): 287

  • Mangold, Sally S., “The Braille literacy movement: A dichotomy of action,” Getting in Touch with Literacy, 1997, p.9

  • http://www.dotlessbraille.org/braillecontractions.htm


  • Login