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无机化学. 溶 液. 二○一二年十月. 本章基本要求 1 掌握溶液的基本知识 , 并能进行溶液浓度的有关计算 ; 2 了解气、液、固态物质溶解性的一般规律 ; 3 掌握难挥发的非电解质稀溶液的依数性及其应用 ; 4 了解和认识胶体溶液的重要性质及胶粒的结构. 本章所设置的问题 : 1 溶液浓度的表示方法有哪些种 ? 2 影响物质溶解度的因素有哪些 , 亨利定律的意义何在 ? 3 分配定律的含义及其有何应用 ? 4 拉乌尔定律的含义及其如何解释难挥发的非电解质稀溶液的特性 ? 5 胶体溶液的特性、结构、稳定性的本质特征极其相互关系如何 ?.

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无机化学

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1 ,;

2 ;

3 ;

4 .


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:

1 ?

2 ,?

3 ?

4 ?

5 ?


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9-1


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:

1 ? NaClCaONH3 .

2 ??

3 ?

()


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:

1 ,

?

,?

2 ,

?

3 ,

?


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1(mol/kg)

2(moldm-3 )

3

4

5


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-

-

-

G= H-TS.


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(Henry)

ci = K pi

:Api,B,2pi,A?


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K= cA / cB

cAA(/)

cB B(/)


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9-1 colligative properties dilute nonelectroiyte solution

Tb / Tf / 20 / (gcm-3)

100.00 0.00 0.9982

0.5molkg-1 100.27 -0.93 1.0687

100.24 -0.94 1.0012


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. Ostwald . .


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lowering of the vapor pressure of the solvent)

:p.


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:

, .


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(1887)

p = pA* xA

ppA*xA

XB

xA + xB = 1 p = pA*(1- xB)

pA* - p = pA*xB p = pA*xB

p :


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nA nB

xB=nB/(nB+nA) nB/nA

1000g()nB, m

m = nB(mol kg-1)

nA = 1000/18 = 55.5 mol

xB = nB / nA = m/55.5

p = pA*xB = pA* m/55.5

p = Km


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(K)m


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Tb*Tb

Tb = Kb m

Kb

Kbm =1molkg-1


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. . pTbTbp.

KbTbTbmKb.


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Tf = Kf m

Kf

m

5-4


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,(), (0),,.


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osmotic pressure


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[Cu2Fe(CN)6] . l. . l . l pl p .


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-Vant Hoff ()

V = n R T

= c R t = m R T

(kPa)VT (K)

R(8.314 J mol-1 K-1 )

n c


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1

0.322g80g278.34K

278.50KKf=5.10Kmol-1 kg


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2

253K Tf=20.0K1000g[C3H8O3,M(C3H8O3)=92g mol-1]

m = Tf /Kf = 20.0/1.86

= 10.75 mol kg -1


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3

,,.(),.

,5%0.9%.,.


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:

1 ?

2 ?

3 ?

4 50%?(10).,?

5 ?

6 ?

7 ,?

8 ,?


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Tf= 0.56 37 (Kf=1.86).

Tf = Kf m m= Tf /Kf

= m R T= Tf /Kf RT

=0.568.314310.17/1.86

=776.4 kPa


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,0.543K,(180)

::

Tf = Kf mB

Kf = 1.86

0.543 = 1.86

W=52.55g

c%=52.55/(1000+52.55)100%=5%

W

180

1000

1000


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9-1

1nm

1nm-1m

1 m -100m


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1

(1)

A .

B.

(2)


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2 , ,,.. ,,;,.,,.,();,.,,?


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3

Brown R1928,.

.


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4

1

,,,.

,.

(Pece)1809.

,P3489-6


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?.

Fe(OH)3 As2S3 Sb2S3 H2SiO3

Al(OH)3

Cr(OH)3

() ()

() ()


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2

?AgI:

AgNO3,

[(AgI)m n Ag+ (n-x) NO3-]x+ x NO3-


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KI:

[(AgI)m n I- (n-x) K-]x- x K+


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FeCl3Fe(OH)3 :FeCl3 +3H2O= Fe(OH)3 +3HClHCl FeOCl FeO+:{[Fe(OH)3 ]m n FeO+ (n-x) Cl -}x+ x Cl -


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:

H2SiO3 = 2H+ + SiO32-

[(SiO2)m n SiO32- 2(n-x) H+ ]2x- 2x H+


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:

2H2AsO3+H2S=As2S3+6H2O

[(As2S3)m nHS - (n-x) H+ ]x- x H+


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1.()

6-


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2,,,,,.

3

,.


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4

,,,,,?

:,;

,,.


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MB>1104kgmol-,()()

,,,,.

,.,,,.


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. -OH-COOH-NH2,,,.,.

.,,;,.

.,..,,,.

,2/3,.


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().

,.

,,.

,,.

,,.


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1 1mol/kg _ 1

( )

a b c. 1000 d 1000

2 m/,NH3

( )

a m/ b m/( + m)

c. m/( + m) d

3 ()a%,/,

(mol/L) ( )

a. 10a/17 b 1000a/17 c 10a/17 d 10a/35

4 c/,/,,

()(%)

a 17c/1000 b.17c/10 c 17c/1000 d 35c/10

1000-17m

18


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5 ( )

a b c. d

6 ( )

a ,,

b.

c

d

7 ( )

a b. c d

8 , ( )

a b c d.

9 ( )

a b


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c d

10 ,, ( )

a 100 b. 100 c 100 d

11 ( )

a 0 b. 0 c 0 d

12 ( )

a 0.01mol/kgKCl b 0.01mol/kgH2SO4

c. 0.01mol/kgC12H22O11 d 0.5mol/kgCH3COOH

13 101325Pa, ( )

a 1 mol/L CO(NH2)2 b 1 mol/L NaCl

c 0.1 mol/L H2SO4 d 0.1 mol/L MgSO4.

14 ( )

a 0.1mKCl b. 0.1mCH3COOH

c 0.1mHCl d 0.1mK2SO4


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15 1 mol/LKNO3,-3.27

, ( )

a b. c KNO3 d H2O

16 ( )

a 0.1mol/L C12H22O11 b 0.1mol/kg C2H5OH

c 0.1mol/L KCl d 0.1mol/L K2SO4.

17 , ( )

a 1-10nm,1nm

b ,

c ,

d .

18 ( )

a b c . d


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19 , ( )

a. b c d

20 ( )

a. b c d

21 Fe(OH)3 ( )

a K2SO4 b. c d As2S3

22 0.08 mol/LKI0.1 mol/LAgNO3

, ( )

a CaCl2 b. MgSO4 c MgCl2 d NaNO3

230.15 mol/LKI0.1 mol/LAgNO3

, ( )

a Na2SO4 b NaCl c CaCl2 d AlCl3.

24 As2S3, ( )

a KCl b MgCl2 c KNO3 d Al(NO3)3.


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