Solar Power Sail - Hybrid Propulsion and its Applications - A Jovian Orbiter and Trojan Asteroid Flybys. ISSS 2010. Jun’ichiro Kawaguchi, JSPEC, ISAS/JAXA. A Solar Power Sail Mission proposed at JAXA. A Proposal from the Solar Power Sail Working Group (WG) at JSPEC, ISAS/JAXA.
Jun’ichiro Kawaguchi, JSPEC, ISAS/JAXA
A Proposal from the Solar Power Sail Working Group (WG) at JSPEC, ISAS/JAXA.
A Conceptual Study is summarized here.
The Mission aims at Technology Demonstration of A Combined Solar Electric/Photon Powered Sail to Jupiter for Science Mission.
This briefly introduces the Ikaros demonstration flight.
Mass: 370 kg, Powered by: RTG,
Launched by STS-41 with Double Upper Stage (1990),
Trajectory : ballistic.
Proposed Solar Power Sail:
Mass: 650 kg including a Jovian Orbiter, Powered by Thin Film Solar Cells, Launched by Expendable Smaller ELVs,
Trajectory : Hybrid Combined SEP (Solar Electric Propulsion) with Photon
* Ultra High Speed Entry Probe for Jovian Atmosphere. (optional)
4 108 (km)
Future Solar System Voyage
Deep Space Port, Infrastructures
(Outline)Deep Space Port built at L2, and Earth-to-Planetary Reusable Transportation System
(Strategy)Large Spaceships are never launched from ground. Propulsion will be driven by nuclear power. Completely Reusable spaceships will be operated in future.
(Prospect)Flight/Voyage will fly through Relay Port (Deep Space Port) Multi-objective On-orbit Stations are constructed. The traffic infrastructure will include commuter craft between gravity-well to the Port.
Example: Round-Trip to Jupiter
Thin Film Solar Sail
Thin Film Solar Cells
Jupiter and Trojan Asteroids Explorer
Trojan Asteroids Explorer
Evolution of Solar Power Sail
・Solar Power Sail combines photon propulsion with electric propulsion by taking the advantage of thin film solar cells technology, which optimizes highly efficient delta-V-fuel characterized by the solar photon sail through higher thrust nature to accomplish the missions within admissible period.
1st SW 5.4km/s
Beyond Main Belt Asteroids
Launch→Single EDVEGA→Jupiter Swingby
Jupiter →Trojan asteroid rendezvous
Mother spacecraft (Trojan Rendezvous and Cruising Observation)
Jovian Orbiter (Magnetosphere Measurement)
Jupiter Entry Probe (option)
Aux. Solar Cell
Cable to Petals
Ion Engines Tables
Size : 700mmf in diameter.
Operational Temperature : -30degC (243degK) Heater power : 80W assumed.
Power required : 150W (no- communication), 250W.(with communication XPA: 20W)
Cells Film : 60m2. (~9mf) No Drum Structure required.
Ka-band TLM via HGA fixedly mounted.
Routine operation assumes 0.5 hr/day.
Heavy duty period is backed up by Fuel Cells aboard.
(Ticks in 10 days)
Phase Angle in Approach is 110 degrees.
m10HIsp Grid m10 Grid
m10(Hayabusa Heritage) to m10HIsp(15kV, Isp 10,000sec, 2.5kW)
Ultra-High Heat Flux Environment
qc =195 MW/m2
qr =320 MW/m2
Total = 490 MW/m2
Flight Environment Comparison
Solar Electric Hybrid Sailor – Roadmap
What was attempted at JAXA:
Aug. in 2003
Sounding Rocket (S310-34)
Dynamic Membrane Deployment (10m)
Subpayload on M-V#8
Quasi-Static Membrane Deployment (10m)
Deployment resulted in Partial Success.
Balloon Experiment on B200-7
Quasi-Static Membrane Deployment (20m)
Deployment resulted in Success.
Piggy-back ultra-small satellite on M-V#7
Thin Film Solar Power Generation
Film Deployed. Functioned for 6 hrs using Battery.
Resulted in Failure.
Deployed Clover-Type Sail
S-310#34 Sounding Rocket
Clover Sail Flight Demonstration via S-310-34 Aug., 2004
Square Sail Deployment Demo. via Balloon Aug., 2006
Pseudo Logarithmic Sail（ISAS）
Fundamental Experiments were Repeated.
Membrane deployment is one of the keys in Solar Sails.
Double Accordion Sail (TMIT)
This Mission aims at the following four key targets．
(1) Deployment of Large Membrane Sail
Minimum Success Criteria
(2) Collecting Power from Thin Film Solar Cells
(3) Demonstrating Photon Propulsion
Full Success Criteria
(4) Demonstrating Guidance, Navigation Control Skills for Solar Sail Propulsion
Full Success during half a year
5) Trajectory Control Demonstration with Steering capability
Minimum Success during several weeks
4) Demonstrating Photon Propulsion
1) Launch via HIIA, Sun-Pointing, Spin-Separation
3) Minimum Success:
Deploying Membrane with Thin Film Solar Cells `Power Generation.
2) Initial Inspection
Launched in May to June of 2010, as an Extra Payload with PLANET-C (Venuc Climate Orbiter) toward Venus on H-IIA.
Tip Mass Released
Separated from Vehicle
Deployed Extraction Guide Roller
Captured by Camera Aboard
Where the Camera is?
Switching Doppler Measurement
Photon acceleration was legibly confirmed immediately after the 2nd deployment of the sail membrane.
Circular shaped attitude motion caused by the Diffusion Radiation Effect was observed as predicted.
Tip Mass weighs 0.5kg each.
Dust Particle Sensor (Piezo-electric device)
Thin Film Solar Cells (25 micron)
Liquid Crystal Steering Experiment Device
Membrane made of 7.5 micron poly-imide.
* Ikaros Demonstration Team is lead by O. Mori with our colleagues. The Ikaros was also success in nurturing the next generation.
A Solar Power Sail consisting of :
Thin-Film Solar Cells in Large Area Membrane deployment technology
taps for a new era.
Baseline : Aiming at demonstrating a new strategy for outer solar system exploration by means of Solar Power, Hybrid propulsion spacecraft, also aims at background emission and Trojan asteroids flybys.
World’s First & First Class Scientific output and Technology demonstration expected.
Ikaros Demonstrator Mission was successfully placed.
We are ready to host joint WSs with International Partners, such as the Planetary Society.