Fundamentals of Wind Energy

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Fundamentals of Wind Energy

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1. Fundamentals of Wind Energy

2. Power in the Wind Where ? is air density (kg/m3), A is area (m2), and V is velocity (m/s).

3. Air Density Where p is air pressure (mb), R is the gas constant, and T is temperature (K)

4. Paul Gipe & Assoc.

6. Identifying the Wind Resource

7. Vegetative Indicators--Wind Throw

8. Increase in Wind Speed Over Ridges

9. Wind Sensors

10. Wind Direction

11. Seasonal Wind Distribution

12. Rayleigh Wind Speed Distribution

13. Weibull Wind Speed Distribution For Same Average Speed

14. Turbulence & Obstructions

15. Speed, Power, & Height 1/7 (0.14), Low Grass Prairies 1/4 (0.25), Suburbs 0.40, Urban

16. Increase in Wind Speed with Height

17. Increase in Power with Height

18. Change in Wind Speed & Power with Height

19. Typical Tower Height

21. California Wind Resources

22. Wind Resources of the Dakotas

24. Paul Gipe & Assoc.

25. AEO Estimating Methods Back-of-the-Envelope (Swept Area) Simple Approximation Power Curve & Speed Distribution Method Used by the Pros Accuracy Dependent Upon Data Manufacturers’ Tables Dependent Upon Honesty of Manufacturer Software Must Know Assumptions Used (RETScreen)

28. Measured Efficiency of Small Wind Turbines @ Wulf Field

29. AEO Small Wind Turbines

30. Conversion Efficiency

31. California Annual Specific Yield

32. North American Mid-Continent Wind Sites

33. North American Mid-Continent Wind Sites

34. Tararua New Zealand Yields

35. AEO Medium & Large Turbines

36. Estimating AEO Swept Area Method for 7 m/s*

37. Sample Power Curve Calculation Power Curve

38. Sample Power Curve Calculation Speed Distribution

39. Sample Power Curve Calculation Annual Energy Production

41. Net Generation from Wind Plants

42. Wind Energy Software Spreadsheets Integrated (Tom Wind) Fully Integrated (RETScreen) Wind Farm Design Tools WAsP (Risø) WindFarm (ReSoft) WindFarmer (Garrad Hassan) WindPro (EMD) WindMap (Brower)

47. Paul Gipe & Assoc.

48. Sources of Information Trade Magazines European Wind Reports German Market Survey Books Web Sites Workshops

49. Trade Magazines Windpower Monthly WindStats WinDirections RE World New Energy Neue Energie North American Windpower Systèmes Solaires

50. BTM-Consult DEWI Magazin ISET WMEP European Wind Reports

51. Paul Gipe & Assoc. Book & CD-Rom German Market Survey

52. Power Curves Noise Power Factor Flicker Measured Performance Data

53. Pricing Model Tower Transformer €/kWh/annum €/m2

55. New Wind Books

56. WWW Sites www.windpower.dk Danish Manufacturers www.eole.org/ en français www.wind-energie.de BWE, German Wind Turbine Owners wind-works.org Archive of Articles by Paul Gipe

57. Don’t Be Afraid of Foreign Language Web Sites

58. Suivi-Eolien France

59. Suivi-Eolien France

60. Case Studies

61. Distributed (Self) Generation Schafer Systems: Taking a Gamble Adair, Iowa, 1995 V27, 225 kW, 480 VAC 5.8 m/s Site ~$300,000 500,000 kWh/yr Net Metering 75% of Load

62. Schafer Systems No Tax Credit $3,000/yr Insurance (2X projected) 8 yr. Payback Abuts I-80 R-o-W Rezoned for Height Ice Throw to Roof Lightning

63. Case Study-Altamont Pass Peak Development 81-88 ~5,000 Turbines ~550 MW (Capped) ~1 TWh/yr Early Turbines ~20 Years Old Aging High Maintenance Slated for “Repowering” Since 1998!

64. Case Study-Altamont Pass ~$2 Billion Invested Birds Remain an Issue Good Match w/ Load Peak Winds Summer Evenings When Convective Heating Greatest USW/Kenetech Dominated Yields Good on Later Turbines 650-850 kWh/m2/yr

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