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AVIAN INFLUENZA An Animal Health Perspective. Dr. Thomas J. Holt State Veterinarian/Director FDACS, Division of Animal Industry. Etiology. Orthomyxoviridae Envelope Glycoprotein projections/surface antigens Hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA)

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AVIAN INFLUENZA

An Animal Health Perspective

Dr. Thomas J. Holt

State Veterinarian/Director

FDACS, Division of Animal Industry


Etiology
Etiology

  • Orthomyxoviridae

    • Envelope

    • Glycoprotein projections/surface antigens

    • Hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA)

    • 15 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase antigens

    • A Type designation (A - only, B or C only present in humans)

    • Primary reservoir is wild birds, especially water fowl

    • H5, H7 strains of primary concern

2


Avian influenza
Avian Influenza

  • Incubation Period 3-14 days

  • Highly contagious (100%)

  • Low-Path - low mortality, recover in 3 weeks

  • High-Path - >95% mortality within 24 hours

3


Disease in poultry
Disease in Poultry

  • Low pathogenic strains

    • mild to severe respiratory symptoms

    • egg production may drop by up to 45% and take 2—4 weeks to recover

  • High pathogenic strains

    • severe respiratory distress, diarrhea, nervous signs

    • watery eyes and sinuses

    • cyanosis of the combs, wattle and shanks

    • swelling of the head

4


Gross lesions
Gross Lesions

Swollen head, edema

Paint brush hemorrhage

Excess mucous, hemorrhage

5


Why Control Low-Path H5/H7 AI?

  • Significant carcass condemnations

  • Significant egg production losses

  • Inter-state and international trade embargoes

  • Mutation to High Path

  • Potential Zoonotic Disease

6


Infection and Depopulation Spatial Patterns

March 12 through June 24, 2002

7


Turkey or

Chicken Flock

Virginia: All Turkey and Chicken Flocks

As of April 18, 2002

8


2002 va ai outbreak h 7 n 2
2002 VA AI Outbreak H7N2

March 7-12 Index Case Confirmation Voluntary Company Depopulation On-Site Burial

March 28 20 Positive Flocks

State/Company Control Measures

Controlled Slaughter Permitted

9



Virginia: Infected Flocks (89)

As of April 18, 2002

11



2002 va ai outbreak

2002 VA AI Outbreak

197 Positive Farms/ 1000 Farms 20%

4.7 million birds/ 56 million birds 8.4%

13




Types of farms affected

No. of farms affected …………………………...………. 197

Turkeys (78%):

Turkey breeders ……………………………………… 28

Commercial turkeys (meat) ……………………125

Chickens (22%):

Broilers (chickens) ……………..........................13

Broiler breeders (chickens) ………….………..29

Layers (chickens) ………………………………….…… 2

No positives found in area backyard flocks or wild waterfowl.

16





Virginia avian influenza task force personnel
VIRGINIA AVIAN INFLUENZATASK FORCEPersonnel

20


Virginia ai task force
Virginia AI Task Force

  • Mission: To control low path AI

    • Identify and eliminate foci of infection

    • Prevent spread of disease

  • Priorities:

    • 1. Safety of Incident Personnel and Involved Public

      • 2. Adherence of Strict Biosecurity Measures by Incident Personnel

  • 21


    Three focus areas
    Three Focus Areas

    • Surveillance

    • Eliminate foci of infection

    • Biosecurity

    22


    Laboratory diagnosis
    Laboratory Diagnosis

    • Viral isolation

    • AGID

    • ELISA

    • Battery of specific antigens to identify its serologic identity (HA and NA type).

    • Sera from infected chickens usually yield positive antibody tests as early as 3 or 4 days after first signs of disease.

    • Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rT-RT-PCR)

    23


    Avian Influenza Tests

    AGID

    Directigen

    RT-PCR

    Virus Isolation

    Virus Level

    0

    7

    14

    21

    28

    Days Post-Infection (Flock)

    24





    Elimination of foci of infection
    Elimination of Foci of Infection

    • Rapid humane euthanasia of infected flocks

    • Rapid removal of carcasses

    • Disposal – a major challenge

    • Closing of Houses followed by testing

    • Cleaning and Disinfection of houses

    • Implementation of Biosecurity Measures

    28


    Carcass disposal methods
    Carcass Disposal Methods

    • On Farm Burial

    • Incineration

    • Landfill

    • Composting

    29




    Incident command system
    Incident Command System

    • Incident Command Staff

    • Planning

    • Administration and Finance

    • Logistics

    • Operations

    32




    Army

    35



    Incident command system daily meeting
    Incident Command System Daily Meeting

    0700 Surveillance Personnel (All)

    0800 Daily Briefing (All w/o Surveillance)

    1300 Chiefs Meeting (Commanders and Chiefs)

    1800 Planning Meeting (Planning)

    1830 Plans Approval Meeting (Commanders and Chiefs)

    37




    Supply

    40


    Training

    Training

    41



    Epidemiological assessments proved critical in success
    Epidemiological Assessments Proved Critical in Success

    • Surveillance Design for Commercial Flocks

    • Surveillance of Backyard Flocks

    • Surveillance of Wildbirds

    • Case Control Study

    • GIS Mapping and Spatial Analysis

    43




    AI Case Control Study

    Preliminary Results

    Epidemiology Section

    Analysis team:

    Jennifer McQuiston

    Lindsey Garber

    46


    Risk Factors Assessed:

    Premises Characteristics

    - Security

    - Nearby lake/pond

    Farm Management

    - litter source

    - dead bird disposal

    Biosecurity

    - Visitor log

    - Showers

    - Disinfectant Footbaths

    Presence of Other Birds and Animals (wild, domestic)

    Recent Visitors

    Recent Travel

    47


    Case control study assessment of risk factors
    Case Control StudyAssessment of Risk Factors

    48


    Epidemiological considerations
    Epidemiological Considerations

    • The source of this outbreak was never established.

    • The same strain of H7N2 has been seen in other small outbreaks in eastern states and live bird markets in the Northeast over a number of years.

    • A case-control study found flocks 7 times more likely to be infected if transporting dead birds to a rendering facility.

    • No evidence was found of airborne spread or spread associated with depopulation or disposal.

    • Disease was spread primarily by movement of people and equipment in a densely populated poultry rearing area.

    49


    Lessons learned
    Lessons Learned

    • The H7N2 strain that has circulated among Live Bird Markets of the Northeast and their supply and distribution channels continues to represent a serious threat to commercial poultry.

    • Control measures need to be taken to lessen the spread of this virus and further protect commercial flocks.

    • Rendering practices need to be reexamined with respect to the risk of disease spread.

    • During an outbreak biosecurity measures at the farm and plant level must be strengthened to prevent disease spread by people and equipment.

    50


    Reasons for success
    Reasons for Success

    • Lessons Learned from the Past

    • Industry Involvement and Commitment

    • Cooperation Between Virginia, West Virginia, USDA and all of the Cooperators

    • Improved Technologies (Rapid Diagnosis and Computer Support)

    • Rapid and Coordinated Response

    51


    Ai vaccination poultry
    AI Vaccination: Poultry

    • Non H5/H7 AI vaccines routinely used in some areas

    • H5/H7 vaccines traditionally not used because of trade restrictions

    • Usage of H5/H7 vaccines requires USDA and State Approval

    52


    Ai vaccination poultry1
    AI Vaccination: Poultry

    • 2003 Connecticut H7N2 Outbreak Controlled and Eradicated utilizing H7N3 vaccine, intense biosecurity, and controlled slaughter

    53


    Ai vaccination human
    AI Vaccination: Human

    • Animal Health responders must be included in targeted human vaccination in zoonotic outbreak involving poultry.

    • Poultry workers in outbreak area of any zoonotic AI should also be included as priority for vaccination.

    54



    Added animal health concerns with zoonotic ai
    Added Animal Health Concerns with Zoonotic AI

    • Farm workers may introduce disease to poultry

    • Birds may serve as reservoir with on-going human and bird exposure

    • Personal safety of Animal Task Force Workers and Poultry Caretakers

    56


    Added animal health concerns with zoonotic ai1
    Added Animal Health Concerns with Zoonotic AI

    • Humane care and euthanasia of birds

    • Carcass Disposal, Biosecurity, and Environmental Safeguards

    • Rapid Detection and Prevention of Spread

    57


    Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer ServicesCharles Bronson, Commissioner

    AVIAN INFLUENZA

    An Animal Health Perspective

    Presented by:

    Dr. Thomas J. Holt

    State Veterinarian/Director

    Division of Animal Industry

    Phone: 850-410-0900

    Email: [email protected]


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