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1. Power Point Presentations: Visual Aids for Effective Oral Presentations Lenette Golding Communications Advisor Child Health and Nutrition Team 13th Annual Nutrition and Child Health Workshop Bali, Indonesia March 20, 2009 Getting Prepared! Documentation, Presentation and Advocacy

2. Basic rules 10 slides 20 minutes 30 sized font or larger No complete sentences The 10 slides/ 20 min. rule comes out to 1-2 slides per minute of your presentation Use visuals to enhance the message- not to be the message It?s quite simple: a PowerPoint presentation should have ten slides, last no more than twenty minutes, and contain no font smaller than thirty points. Ten is the optimal number of slides in a PowerPoint presentation because a normal human being cannot comprehend more than ten concepts at a time. If you must use more than ten slides to explain your idea, you probably don?t have a idea. The 10 slides/ 20 min. rule comes out to 1-2 slides per minute of your presentation Use visuals to enhance the message- not to be the message It?s quite simple: a PowerPoint presentation should have ten slides, last no more than twenty minutes, and contain no font smaller than thirty points. Ten is the optimal number of slides in a PowerPoint presentation because a normal human being cannot comprehend more than ten concepts at a time. If you must use more than ten slides to explain your idea, you probably don?t have a idea.

3. Studies show? Presentation graphics Reduce the time it takes for audience members to process messages Studies have shown that visual effectiveness is improved when the presenter uses graphics. Not only that but presenters are perceived as much more effective when using graphics- More professional Better prepared More persuasive More likely to reach consensus with your audience when visual aids are clear, attractive, and clearly understood. Studies have shown that visual effectiveness is improved when the presenter uses graphics. Not only that but presenters are perceived as much more effective when using graphics- More professional Better prepared More persuasive More likely to reach consensus with your audience when visual aids are clear, attractive, and clearly understood.

4. Every picture tells a story Every picture tells a story. Be sure to choose a picture that tell the story. Helps put a face to the story Appeals to the reader?s emotions Transcends language Maximizes the potential impact Adds a layer of detail We live in a visual culture Each visual should contain precise elements that accurately depict the story so there is no question in the minds of the audience as to how to interpret the information given What stories do these photos tell? A happy ending?Every picture tells a story. Be sure to choose a picture that tell the story. Helps put a face to the story Appeals to the reader?s emotions Transcends language Maximizes the potential impact Adds a layer of detail We live in a visual culture Each visual should contain precise elements that accurately depict the story so there is no question in the minds of the audience as to how to interpret the information given What stories do these photos tell? A happy ending?

5. Get closer

6. No stiff portraits No Stiff Portraits Avoid positioning people standing straight with their arms to the side. Avoid positioning the subject with their back against a wall or door. Spend more time with your subject to allow comfort to develop. Look for expressions (pride, confidence, distress, happiness). Look for eye contact from the subject. No Stiff Portraits Avoid positioning people standing straight with their arms to the side. Avoid positioning the subject with their back against a wall or door. Spend more time with your subject to allow comfort to develop. Look for expressions (pride, confidence, distress, happiness). Look for eye contact from the subject.

7. Eye contact

8. Action

9. Context Don?t forget the context Remember the who, what, when, where, why and how. Context can help illustrate the story, location and project. Context shows CARE?s role. Don?t forget the context Remember the who, what, when, where, why and how. Context can help illustrate the story, location and project. Context shows CARE?s role.

10. Rule of thirds

11. Rule of thirds

12. Perspective

13. Use morning and afternoon light Outdoor light is preferred (morning and late afternoon is ideal). Avoid mid-day direct sun (find shaded areas and/or use fill flash). When indoors, look for window or door light. Also see the lack of light. Outdoor light is preferred (morning and late afternoon is ideal). Avoid mid-day direct sun (find shaded areas and/or use fill flash). When indoors, look for window or door light. Also see the lack of light.

14. Use lack of light to your advantage

15. Smiling Smiling shows they have realized the power they have to create positive change. Smiling shows they have realized the power they have to create positive change.

16. Expression An expression can also evoke the feeling of the woman?s power within showing her latent potential. An expression can also evoke the feeling of the woman?s power within showing her latent potential.

17. But that does not mean you should use all images This slide is This slide is

18. Say more than you show When visuals do not relate directly to the objective they tend to require more explanation or more discussion. Chances are the presenter could have covered the material vocally rather than visually to avoid having the audience spend a great deal of time understanding the point. Most presenters tend to increase the amount of information on each visual in the hope of clarifying major points. Nothing could be worse. A truly effective presentation should never try to answer every question visually. Such an attempt will lead to complex images cluttered with excess information. The key is to say more than you show and handout more than you say. You should always hand out more material for review than you verbally cover during your presentation. THAT IS WHY I PREPARED NOTE PAGES FOR YOU. You do not have to hand out exactly what you say, that is a copy of each visual. It is better to leave people with supporting documents than to bombard them with tons of information on every visual. The other point I would like to make is you should not read the visuals to the audience. When visuals do not relate directly to the objective they tend to require more explanation or more discussion. Chances are the presenter could have covered the material vocally rather than visually to avoid having the audience spend a great deal of time understanding the point. Most presenters tend to increase the amount of information on each visual in the hope of clarifying major points. Nothing could be worse. A truly effective presentation should never try to answer every question visually. Such an attempt will lead to complex images cluttered with excess information. The key is to say more than you show and handout more than you say. You should always hand out more material for review than you verbally cover during your presentation. THAT IS WHY I PREPARED NOTE PAGES FOR YOU. You do not have to hand out exactly what you say, that is a copy of each visual. It is better to leave people with supporting documents than to bombard them with tons of information on every visual. The other point I would like to make is you should not read the visuals to the audience.

19. Slides with problems

20. Slide Structure - Bad This page contains too many words for a presentation slide. It is not written in point form, making it difficult both for your audience to read and for you to present each point. Although there are exactly the same number of points on this slide as the previous slide, it looks much more complicated. In short, your audience will spend too much time trying to read this paragraph instead of listening to you.

21. Slide Structure ? Good Show one point at a time: Will help audience concentrate on what you are saying Will prevent audience from reading ahead Will help you keep your presentation focused

22. THE TEN STEPS TO SUCCESSFUL BREASTFEEDING Have a written breastfeeding policy that is routinely communicated to all health care staff. Train all health care staff in skills necessary to implement this policy. Inform all pregnant women about the benefits and management of breastfeeding. Help mothers initiate breastfeeding within a half-hour of birth. Show mothers how to breastfeed, and how to maintain lactation even if they are separated from their infants. Give newborn infants no food or drink other than breastmilk, unless medically indicated. Practice rooming-in- allow mothers and infants to remain together- 24 hours a day. Encourage breastfeeding on demand. Give no artificial teats or pacifiers to breastfeeding infants. Foster the establishment of breastfeeding support groups and refer mothers to them on discharge from the hospital or clinic. What is wrong with this slide?- Avoid lengthy lists Tell them only what they need to know Stick to one idea at a time No more than 7 bullet points per page The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding could be a 20 minute presentation all by itself. You could have 11 slides- the introduction slide and the ten steps- one step per slide. Remember, simple visuals encourage the audience to listen to the presenter?s explanation- and ultimately their point of view. What is wrong with this slide?- Avoid lengthy lists Tell them only what they need to know Stick to one idea at a time No more than 7 bullet points per page The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding could be a 20 minute presentation all by itself. You could have 11 slides- the introduction slide and the ten steps- one step per slide. Remember, simple visuals encourage the audience to listen to the presenter?s explanation- and ultimately their point of view.

23. The typically thing someone would say when they presented this slide is, ?I know you can?t read this but?.? What is wrong with this slide? Too much info for one slide and the font is too small- Would make a better handout so people could study it. The designer of this visual had a benefit that the audience does not have- plenty of time! If you create images that are too busy, the attention span per visual will be lower and the impact of the presentation will be less than you wish. The typically thing someone would say when they presented this slide is, ?I know you can?t read this but?.? What is wrong with this slide? Too much info for one slide and the font is too small- Would make a better handout so people could study it. The designer of this visual had a benefit that the audience does not have- plenty of time! If you create images that are too busy, the attention span per visual will be lower and the impact of the presentation will be less than you wish.

24. Handout more than you say Remember to handout more than you sayRemember to handout more than you say

25. The earth-to-sky color theory The order in which colors are selected should follow the most natural viewing pattern. We perceive color in the same way we view the earth to sky. The earth-to-sky theory is for the foreground elements in the visual, not for the background color. Specifically, the theory is most useful in data-driven charts that involve a series of related items that are being distinguished by color or tone. SHOW CHARTThe earth-to-sky color theory The order in which colors are selected should follow the most natural viewing pattern. We perceive color in the same way we view the earth to sky. The earth-to-sky theory is for the foreground elements in the visual, not for the background color. Specifically, the theory is most useful in data-driven charts that involve a series of related items that are being distinguished by color or tone. SHOW CHART

26. Percent of people in specific countries who like feeling sand between their toes So when designing a bar chart follow natural color patterns. This is not supposed to include travel without an overnight stay, particularly to Canada and Mexico. Notice that the specification of the regions was not completely 52% have traveled to developing countries As expected, the majority of travel is to Canada, western Europe and Mexico. So when designing a bar chart follow natural color patterns. This is not supposed to include travel without an overnight stay, particularly to Canada and Mexico. Notice that the specification of the regions was not completely 52% have traveled to developing countries As expected, the majority of travel is to Canada, western Europe and Mexico.

27. While you may select any three colors to distinguish the separate areas, the earth-to-sky theory calls for you to arrange chart colors from darker-to-lighter or from the bottom of the chart upward. While you may select any three colors to distinguish the separate areas, the colors should be arranged darker to lighter as you look upward. The arrangement of colors, done naturally, allows the eye to scan the visual more quickly. Once the visual is scanned, the audience hs more time to listen to the presenter?s description of the information. Less time spent reading means more time spent listening!While you may select any three colors to distinguish the separate areas, the earth-to-sky theory calls for you to arrange chart colors from darker-to-lighter or from the bottom of the chart upward. While you may select any three colors to distinguish the separate areas, the colors should be arranged darker to lighter as you look upward. The arrangement of colors, done naturally, allows the eye to scan the visual more quickly. Once the visual is scanned, the audience hs more time to listen to the presenter?s description of the information. Less time spent reading means more time spent listening!

28. Top heavy chart If this bar chart is arranged lighter to darker it will appear top-heavyIf this bar chart is arranged lighter to darker it will appear top-heavy

29. Do not do Do not use the piano-key approach by putting the lightest color in between surrounding darker colors. Because when looking form left to right, the eye scans colors more easily when the arrangement is a dark-to-light pattern. Do not use the piano-key approach by putting the lightest color in between surrounding darker colors. Because when looking form left to right, the eye scans colors more easily when the arrangement is a dark-to-light pattern.

30. Where Do U.S. Residents Travel? How could you improve this slide? This is not supposed to include travel without an overnight stay, particularly to Canada and Mexico. Notice that the specification of the regions was not completely 52% have traveled to developing countries As expected, the majority of travel is to Canada, western Europe and Mexico. How could you improve this slide? This is not supposed to include travel without an overnight stay, particularly to Canada and Mexico. Notice that the specification of the regions was not completely 52% have traveled to developing countries As expected, the majority of travel is to Canada, western Europe and Mexico.

31. Where Do U.S. Residents Travel? What do you think of this bar chart? This is not supposed to include travel without an overnight stay, particularly to Canada and Mexico. Notice that the specification of the regions was not completely 52% have traveled to developing countries As expected, the majority of travel is to Canada, western Europe and Mexico. What do you think of this bar chart? This is not supposed to include travel without an overnight stay, particularly to Canada and Mexico. Notice that the specification of the regions was not completely 52% have traveled to developing countries As expected, the majority of travel is to Canada, western Europe and Mexico.

32. What would make this slide better?What would make this slide better?

33. Add color! Going from dark to light Remember: The earth-to-sky theory is for the foreground elements in the visual, not the background color. Add color! Going from dark to light Remember: The earth-to-sky theory is for the foreground elements in the visual, not the background color.

34. What do you think of this chart? Creating effective charts and tables could be a session in its own. For now I will only be covering the basics. When planning slides with tables remember these basic rules: Keep them simple ? too much data make a slide difficult to read- use no more than 3 or 4 vertical columns and 8 horizontal lines (this chart has 12 horizontal lines)- keep the title and column/row headings as brief and explanatory as possible ? construct the title so that it provides the most significant identifying information briefly and that it does not simply repeat the column/row headings When tables must be complex either break the information down into a couple of slides or provide a handout that gives more complete details about your data/information Do not put more than one chart on a slide. Include only necessary words; use phrases and partial sentences when possible Use the same terms and vocabulary in the visual aids that you do in your presentation. Use capital and lower-case letters Break lines at logical spots that allow the viewer to complete a thought before moving to the next line. What do you think of this chart? Creating effective charts and tables could be a session in its own. For now I will only be covering the basics. When planning slides with tables remember these basic rules: Keep them simple ? too much data make a slide difficult to read- use no more than 3 or 4 vertical columns and 8 horizontal lines (this chart has 12 horizontal lines)- keep the title and column/row headings as brief and explanatory as possible ? construct the title so that it provides the most significant identifying information briefly and that it does not simply repeat the column/row headings When tables must be complex either break the information down into a couple of slides or provide a handout that gives more complete details about your data/information Do not put more than one chart on a slide. Include only necessary words; use phrases and partial sentences when possible Use the same terms and vocabulary in the visual aids that you do in your presentation. Use capital and lower-case letters Break lines at logical spots that allow the viewer to complete a thought before moving to the next line.

35. Graphs - Bad

36. Graphs - Good

37. Graphs - Bad Font is too small Colors don?t make sense Title is missing Shading is distractingFont is too small Colors don?t make sense Title is missing Shading is distracting

38. Which red square looks smaller? Red squares of EQUAL size look smaller on light colored backgrounds than on dark ones since dark colors absorb all light Although numerous studies have shown the beneficial results of using color in presentations, the most important reaction from color is more of a reflex than anything else. Perception can be deceiving and sometimes our reflexes are out of pace with our reactions. Red squares of EQUAL size look smaller on light colored backgrounds than on dark ones since dark colors absorb all light Although numerous studies have shown the beneficial results of using color in presentations, the most important reaction from color is more of a reflex than anything else. Perception can be deceiving and sometimes our reflexes are out of pace with our reactions.

39. Color affects Mood Interest Motivation Perception Has cultural meanings Large areas of color, specifically the background color, cause emotional response in the audience. The effect of specific backgrounds includes cultural reactions to what certain colors mean or represent. Keep in mind that society agrees on associations for colors based on appearances or cultural habits (as in green?s being associated with money for Americans). However, these color associations are tied to a deeper, more emotional reference that each color apparently signifies cross-culturally. Large areas of color, specifically the background color, cause emotional response in the audience. The effect of specific backgrounds includes cultural reactions to what certain colors mean or represent. Keep in mind that society agrees on associations for colors based on appearances or cultural habits (as in green?s being associated with money for Americans). However, these color associations are tied to a deeper, more emotional reference that each color apparently signifies cross-culturally.

40. Color psychology Blue represents a conservative, secure, yet more vulnerable approach to information. Deep, dark blue is the color of night and can have a calming effect on the emotions. CDC always uses that color blue for all of its Power Point backgrounds. I term these the ?when in doubt? colors for situations in which you wish to create an impression that appears conservative or traditional. I tend to put critical information on blue backgrounds when I wish to develop a credibility issue with the audience that appears to be based on tested facts and figures rather than speculation or opinion. The blue takes the hard sell out of the information and tends to elicit an emotion of trust and loyalty for the argument being presented. Green will stimulate interaction. Educators, trainers, or those interested in involving the audience in a discussion of topic may benefit from using green backgrounds for their visuals. In addition to learning environments, information that requires feedback (such as management issues or policy decisions) may become more visually effective when green is introduced in the background of the presentation visuals. I recommend deep green background in such situations. Avoid very bright green because foreground colors such as yellow or white owill not contrast enough to be easily seen by the audience. Red is the warmest color of the spectrum. The tendency is for the eye to move toward read more quickly than toward other colors. Like when red is used as a slice in a pie chart. SEE NEXT SLIDE. When viewing the color red, there is an increase in the heart and pulse rate. For this reason, red-based backgrounds tend to be simulating for the audience and can lead to a heightened sense of realism about a topic, even to the point of increasing enthusiasm on the part of the audience. I might choose a red background for critical information such as study results of for any situation in which I am trying to persuade or motivate the audience to take action. The intensity of the red you choose is important. I recommend the darker shades as opposed to bright shades. It is better to tone down the intensity of the read and use a dark contrast in order to make the lighter colors of the text more readable and in order not to excite more of an emotional response than you want from the audience. Black Information on a black background leaves the audience with ?no choice? on how to react. The information exists, as it is, and there is nothing the audience can do about it. In that regard, black is usually associated with things that have already occurred and will not change. Hence, financial results, such as accounting data, may be best represented on a black background because this information cannot be changed; it has already happened. For information you want your audience to act on, however, another color background might be more effective. Black backgrounds also have a powerful effect if interspersed in one or two spots within a presentation. For example, if you are using blue or tan backgrounds throughout your presentation and you wish to make a key point with a particular visual, use a black background for that image. The black background will temporarily stop the current emotional flow, enough for the audience to sit up and take notice. SEE BLACK SLIDE White backgrounds-Using the default white background is hard on the viewer?s eyes because of glare. You can easily add a design style or a color to the background. Gray- represents neutrality and lack of commitment. I suggest you avoid using gray backgrounds when displaying any information that is critical to the objective involved in the presentation. Brown- is passive and represents that the information is not solid. I suggest not using brown because it is viewed as information that is not stable or credible. For fun during the US political season look at the color of the ties of the US presidential nominees Blue represents a conservative, secure, yet more vulnerable approach to information. Deep, dark blue is the color of night and can have a calming effect on the emotions. CDC always uses that color blue for all of its Power Point backgrounds. I term these the ?when in doubt? colors for situations in which you wish to create an impression that appears conservative or traditional. I tend to put critical information on blue backgrounds when I wish to develop a credibility issue with the audience that appears to be based on tested facts and figures rather than speculation or opinion. The blue takes the hard sell out of the information and tends to elicit an emotion of trust and loyalty for the argument being presented. Green will stimulate interaction. Educators, trainers, or those interested in involving the audience in a discussion of topic may benefit from using green backgrounds for their visuals. In addition to learning environments, information that requires feedback (such as management issues or policy decisions) may become more visually effective when green is introduced in the background of the presentation visuals. I recommend deep green background in such situations. Avoid very bright green because foreground colors such as yellow or white owill not contrast enough to be easily seen by the audience. Red is the warmest color of the spectrum. The tendency is for the eye to move toward read more quickly than toward other colors. Like when red is used as a slice in a pie chart. SEE NEXT SLIDE. When viewing the color red, there is an increase in the heart and pulse rate. For this reason, red-based backgrounds tend to be simulating for the audience and can lead to a heightened sense of realism about a topic, even to the point of increasing enthusiasm on the part of the audience. I might choose a red background for critical information such as study results of for any situation in which I am trying to persuade or motivate the audience to take action. The intensity of the red you choose is important. I recommend the darker shades as opposed to bright shades. It is better to tone down the intensity of the read and use a dark contrast in order to make the lighter colors of the text more readable and in order not to excite more of an emotional response than you want from the audience. Black Information on a black background leaves the audience with ?no choice? on how to react. The information exists, as it is, and there is nothing the audience can do about it. In that regard, black is usually associated with things that have already occurred and will not change. Hence, financial results, such as accounting data, may be best represented on a black background because this information cannot be changed; it has already happened. For information you want your audience to act on, however, another color background might be more effective. Black backgrounds also have a powerful effect if interspersed in one or two spots within a presentation. For example, if you are using blue or tan backgrounds throughout your presentation and you wish to make a key point with a particular visual, use a black background for that image. The black background will temporarily stop the current emotional flow, enough for the audience to sit up and take notice. SEE BLACK SLIDE White backgrounds-Using the default white background is hard on the viewer?s eyes because of glare. You can easily add a design style or a color to the background. Gray- represents neutrality and lack of commitment. I suggest you avoid using gray backgrounds when displaying any information that is critical to the objective involved in the presentation. Brown- is passive and represents that the information is not solid. I suggest not using brown because it is viewed as information that is not stable or credible. For fun during the US political season look at the color of the ties of the US presidential nominees

41. Pie charts by the way should be limited to five slices- be sure to order the pie slices by magnitude, unless there is some logical reason related to your presentation for arranging them in some other orderPie charts by the way should be limited to five slices- be sure to order the pie slices by magnitude, unless there is some logical reason related to your presentation for arranging them in some other order

42. You do not have any choice but to pay attention to me This type of slide interrupts the emotional flow of the presentation and leaves you the audience, with ?no choice? as to how to act. Although I might recommend putting one or two slides with a black background in a presentation that is based on other-color backgrounds, I do not recommend placing visuals with other color backgrounds within a presentation that is otherwise based on black. In other words, a blue background in the midst of all-black backgrounds appears to be out of place rather than creating a positive effect. Normally, it is wise to only one, consistent, background color throughout a presentation. However, if you wish to change background colors in a presentation, have a reason that is obvious to the audience, such a shift in topic or a change in the reaction you are trying to elicit from them. This type of slide interrupts the emotional flow of the presentation and leaves you the audience, with ?no choice? as to how to act. Although I might recommend putting one or two slides with a black background in a presentation that is based on other-color backgrounds, I do not recommend placing visuals with other color backgrounds within a presentation that is otherwise based on black. In other words, a blue background in the midst of all-black backgrounds appears to be out of place rather than creating a positive effect. Normally, it is wise to only one, consistent, background color throughout a presentation. However, if you wish to change background colors in a presentation, have a reason that is obvious to the audience, such a shift in topic or a change in the reaction you are trying to elicit from them.

43. Maps- If you are using color for your map, try to find as great a contrast as possible. It is difficult to read a map that has more than for colors on it. This one has six. Focus on the area being discussed. For example, if your area of discussion is Sierra Leone and your audience is only somewhat familiar with that region, show a map of Sierra Leone and maybe even point out the specific area you will be discussing. Remember by providing your audience with a visual you are cutting back on the time it takes them to think which means they will have more time to listen. Maps- If you are using color for your map, try to find as great a contrast as possible. It is difficult to read a map that has more than for colors on it. This one has six. Focus on the area being discussed. For example, if your area of discussion is Sierra Leone and your audience is only somewhat familiar with that region, show a map of Sierra Leone and maybe even point out the specific area you will be discussing. Remember by providing your audience with a visual you are cutting back on the time it takes them to think which means they will have more time to listen.

44. Failure to Plan for Lighting Glare from light can change the way color appears. Your slides may look nice in your office but may appear washed out depending on the environment you are showing them in. Backgrounds which have both light and dark areas can be particularly troublesome. The most readable color combinations are known to be dark blue backgrounds with yellow and white text in the foreground. I term these the ?when in doubt? colors for situations in which you wish to create an impression that appears conservative or traditional. I tend to put critical information on blue backgrounds when I wish to develop a credibility issue with the audience that appears to be based on tested facts and figures rather than speculation or opinion. The blue takes the hard sell out of the information and tends to elicit an emotion of trust and loyalty for the argument being presented. Glare from light can change the way color appears. Your slides may look nice in your office but may appear washed out depending on the environment you are showing them in. Backgrounds which have both light and dark areas can be particularly troublesome. The most readable color combinations are known to be dark blue backgrounds with yellow and white text in the foreground. I term these the ?when in doubt? colors for situations in which you wish to create an impression that appears conservative or traditional. I tend to put critical information on blue backgrounds when I wish to develop a credibility issue with the audience that appears to be based on tested facts and figures rather than speculation or opinion. The blue takes the hard sell out of the information and tends to elicit an emotion of trust and loyalty for the argument being presented.

45. PowerPoint provides a tremendous variety of special effects.

46. Areas to Be Covered

47. Really Irritating Effects Sound Effects Cool Noises as Each Slide Changes (avoid by selecting ?no sound? )

48. Really Irritating Effects Noises as Animated Text Comes In May be best to avoid sound with

49. Really Irritating Effects Visual Effects ?Drop In? is quite annoying with relatively long text segments.

50. The Build Sequence Line ONE is revealed Line TWO is revealed Line THREE is revealed This allows control of eye movement Eye movements can be affected by the amount of information the audience is allowed to see on a given visual. For example, the build sequence is a simple technique used to reveal elements of a visual in stages in order to maintain a steady focus for the audience. This saves people expanding brain power in knowing when to focus on a certain bullet point. The opportunity to assist the eye with graphic elements allow the visual to be understood more easily. This control of eye movement also allows more time for the audience to pay attention to the content within the visual. As you can see in this series of three slides, the first line is revealed, while the remaining information stays hidden. The presenter is able to concentrate on this element of the visual until the next item is needed. When ready, the presenter reveals the next element?in this case, the next bullet item in a list. Some presenters prefer to use the gray-down approach in a build sequence. Dimming the color of an item in the progressive list of a build, after it has been discussed, allows the eye to focus on the brighter and more current item, while still allowing the audience to refer back to previous items in the list if they wish. In addition, the audience has a visual cue as to which item the presenter is currently discussing. The build continues at the pace the presenter chooses and allows direct manipulation of eye movement throughout that part of the presentation. Eye movements can be affected by the amount of information the audience is allowed to see on a given visual. For example, the build sequence is a simple technique used to reveal elements of a visual in stages in order to maintain a steady focus for the audience. This saves people expanding brain power in knowing when to focus on a certain bullet point. The opportunity to assist the eye with graphic elements allow the visual to be understood more easily. This control of eye movement also allows more time for the audience to pay attention to the content within the visual. As you can see in this series of three slides, the first line is revealed, while the remaining information stays hidden. The presenter is able to concentrate on this element of the visual until the next item is needed. When ready, the presenter reveals the next element?in this case, the next bullet item in a list. Some presenters prefer to use the gray-down approach in a build sequence. Dimming the color of an item in the progressive list of a build, after it has been discussed, allows the eye to focus on the brighter and more current item, while still allowing the audience to refer back to previous items in the list if they wish. In addition, the audience has a visual cue as to which item the presenter is currently discussing. The build continues at the pace the presenter chooses and allows direct manipulation of eye movement throughout that part of the presentation.

51. Using Arrows Conflict, deadlock Rising outputs Opinions, choices, strategies Aiming for a goal Perhaps the simplest graphic element to sue to control eye movement is the arrow. This visual tool can greatly enhance the understanding of the information. Certain arrow shapes have implied meanings related to the particular direction the eye moves when it sees the arrow. The examples is this slide shows several meanings associated with various arrows. Perhaps the simplest graphic element to sue to control eye movement is the arrow. This visual tool can greatly enhance the understanding of the information. Certain arrow shapes have implied meanings related to the particular direction the eye moves when it sees the arrow. The examples is this slide shows several meanings associated with various arrows.

52. One wouldn?t want to leave out video that is too small and poorly conceived...

53. Ways to Make Text Hard to Read Poor Choice of Font Mismatch with Background Failure to Plan for Lighting Too Small

54. Poor Choice of Font PowerPoint offers the opportunity to use

55. Use fonts that are easy on the eyes This is Arial This is Times New Roman This is Garmond This is Century Gothic

56. This slide has too many fonts on it Breastfeeding Lactation Management Complementary feeding Home Visits Discharge packs Support Counseling Contours of the letters themselves cause the eye to wander without any concern for the meaning of the words in the image. For instance the word ?support? in this slide gives the eye more of a pattern to scan and recognize as a shape Another thing, do not use more than two fonts on a single slide and make sure your font selection is consistent throughout the entire Power Point presentation.Contours of the letters themselves cause the eye to wander without any concern for the meaning of the words in the image. For instance the word ?support? in this slide gives the eye more of a pattern to scan and recognize as a shape Another thing, do not use more than two fonts on a single slide and make sure your font selection is consistent throughout the entire Power Point presentation.

57. Other Ways to Make Text Difficult to Read

58. MORE THAN SEVEN CONSECTUIVE UPPER CASE WORDS WILL FORCE THE AUDIENCE TO READ THE MESSAGE AGAIN Did you have to read this message a second time? Messages in all caps leave no room for emphasis. When all words have equal weight, you cannot place emphasis on specific test. This causes the eye to want to read the information a second time. Did you have to read this message a second time? Messages in all caps leave no room for emphasis. When all words have equal weight, you cannot place emphasis on specific test. This causes the eye to want to read the information a second time.

59. More that seven consecutive UPPER CASE words will force the audience to read the message again By structuring text phrases similar to the way we read (upper case and lower case), you can use capitalization to place emphasis at the exact spot you wish to treat with more importance. In this slide, the emphasis is clear. The capitalized words stand out more than the rest. By structuring text phrases similar to the way we read (upper case and lower case), you can use capitalization to place emphasis at the exact spot you wish to treat with more importance. In this slide, the emphasis is clear. The capitalized words stand out more than the rest.

60. Size of Text Generally recommended that the text go no smaller than 18. Making things smaller can create problems for some people.

61. Font Size This is 32 sized font. This is 36 sized font. This is 40 sized font. This is 44 sized font. This is 48 sized font. This is 54 sized font. Make text easier to read by choosing the right sized font.Make text easier to read by choosing the right sized font.

62. Now That You?ve Prepared the Presentation, What Else Can You Do to Make it Unbearable? Even if you have failed to use any really annoying things from PowerPoint, you can still make the presentation an unpleasant experience.

63. PowerPoint has given us something even worse than doing a presentation by reading a paper. Reading slides to people Reading the slides to people can be annoying. People will be unhappy if you have to read the slides (because the text is too small or the projector too dim). People will be really annoyed if the slides are wonderfully legible and you read to them anyway. Of course, you could read each slide at least twice... Reading the slides to people can be annoying. People will be unhappy if you have to read the slides (because the text is too small or the projector too dim). People will be really annoyed if the slides are wonderfully legible and you read to them anyway. Of course, you could read each slide at least twice...

64. Questions?


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