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Emotion and Motivation. Samuel R. Mathews, Ph.D. The Department of Psychology The University of West Florida. Elements of Emotion. Physiological arousal (heart rate, blushing, sweating, etc) Subjective experiences/feelings (rage, elation, sadness, etc). Elements of Emotion.

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emotion and motivation

Emotion and Motivation

Samuel R. Mathews, Ph.D.

The Department of Psychology

The University of West Florida

elements of emotion
Elements of Emotion
  • Physiological arousal (heart rate, blushing, sweating, etc)
  • Subjective experiences/feelings (rage, elation, sadness, etc)
elements of emotion3
Elements of Emotion
  • Cognitive interpretations (blaming another, recognizing the object of desire)
  • Behavioral expressions (crying, smiling, gazing longingly
emotion and the species
Emotion and the Species
  • Emotions have survival value and have evolved to support organism in its environment:
    • Recognition of threats, attraction, etc
    • Signals to presence of problems and opportunities
emotion and the species5
Emotion and the Species
  • Wide range of individual differences within the species:
    • emotional responsiveness,
    • interpretation, and
    • expression (e.g. grieving patterns and responses differ by tradition and culture)
processes of emotions
Processes of Emotions
  • Fast-response cycle
    • Largely unconscious
    • Relies largely on the limbic system of the brain (largely “reflex” response)
    • Tends to be linked to survival reactions grounded in evolution but learning does impact reaction (habituation)
processes of emotions13
Processes of Emotions
  • Conscious response cycle
    • Largely conscious and slower to respond
    • Relies on cerebral cortex (learned associations and decision-making processes)
processes of emotions14
Processes of Emotions
  • Arousal and performance
    • Inverted “U” in arousal and performance relationship
      • Easy tasks are performed better with higher arousal
      • Moderately challenging tasks performed better with moderate level of arousal
      • More challenging tasks performed better with lower levels of arousal.
theories of emotion
Theories of Emotion
  • Major theories have several elements:
    • Emotionally salient stimulus
    • Physiological reaction (arousal)
    • Cognitive appraisal
    • Emotional response
theories of emotion16
Theories of Emotion
  • James-Lange Theory:
    • StimulusPhysiological ArousalBehavioral ResponseEmotional response
    • “I see a bear, I am running away from the bear, therefore I am afraid.”
theories of emotion17
Theories of Emotion
  • Cannon-Bard Theory
    • StimulusEmotional Response Physiological ArousalBehavioral Response
    • “I see the bear, I am afraid of the bear therefore I will run.”
theories of emotion18
Theories of Emotion
  • Schachter & Singer introduced the concept of appraisal
  • Cognitive Appraisal Theory
    • Stimulus Cognitive Appraisal (how does it affect us?)Decide how to cope
    • “I see a bear. Is the bear posing a threat? If yes, run. If not, get the camera.”
theories of emotion19
Theories of Emotion
  • Debate is still active:
    • Are emotion and cognition separate systems?
      • Izard (1993) & Zajonc (1984) argue that they are
      • Lazarus (1991) argues they are linked
    • Emotional functions that are largely inaccessible to consciousness—Izard & Zajonc
    • Emotional functions that emerge from more controlled processes—Lazarus
  • Mental processes that
    • select,
    • initiate,
    • direct, and
    • sustain our behaviors
  • Links behaviors with inferred internal states (e.g. someone who is drinking water must be thirsty and want water);
  • Motivation is related to biologically based “drives”
      • Fight
      • Flight
      • Food
      • Reproduction
intrinsic extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic—Extrinsic motivation
  • Intrinsic Motivation
    • motive for some behavior originates in preferences of the individual;
    • the action is its own reward;
  • Extrinsic Motivation
    • Motive for some behavior is based on external reinforcement
    • Reinforcement is contingent on some behavior
  • Typically some combination of both are present
maslow s need hierarchy motivation
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy—Motivation
  • Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
    • Physiological (food, water, air, shelter)
    • Safety (protection from threats)
    • Love (nurturing caregivers)
    • Esteem (sense of satisfaction with one’s self)
    • Self Actualization (peak performance, realizing one’s highest level of existence)