‘I think education is bulls**t’: Understanding the pathway to disaffection in school-excluded yo...
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 25

‘I think education is bulls**t’: Understanding the pathway to disaffection in school-excluded young people. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 82 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

‘I think education is bulls**t’: Understanding the pathway to disaffection in school-excluded young people. . Fidelma Hanrahan and Robin Banerjee University of Sussex. Background. What does school disaffection look like?

Download Presentation

‘I think education is bulls**t’: Understanding the pathway to disaffection in school-excluded young people.

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


I think education is bulls t understanding the pathway to disaffection in school excluded young people

‘I think education is bulls**t’: Understanding the pathway to disaffection in school-excluded young people.

Fidelma Hanrahan and Robin Banerjee

University of Sussex


Background

Background

  • What does school disaffection look like?

    • Disruptive behaviour, emotional difficulties, and academic failure (DETR, 1999; Skinner, Kindermann, & Furrer, 2008).

    • Behavioural/emotional profile associated with disadvantaged backgrounds (Daniels et al., 2003; Jimerson, Egeland, Sroufe, & Carlson, 2000; Steer,2000) as well as non-optimal future trajectories (Coles et al., 2002; DFE, 2012; Henry, Knight, & Thornberry, 2012; SEU, 1999).


Theoretical frameworks

Theoretical frameworks

  • Recent theoretical work

    • Attempt to understand and explain link between environmental experiences and school engagement or disengagement.

    • Some plausible models such as the self-system model of motivational development (SSMMD; Connell & Wellborn, 2009; Skinner and colleagues, 2008; 2009).


Theoretical model of the development of disaffection

Theoretical model of the development of disaffection

  • Self-discrepancy theory

  • (Higgins, 1987)

Possible selves

  • (Markus & Nurius, 1986)

  • Self-determination theory (SDT) (Ryan & Deci, 2000)

  • Self

  • Behaviour and emotion

  • Social Environments

  • Motivation and cognitions

  • Achievement goal theory

  • (Dweck & Leggett, 1988)

Attribution theory

  • (Weiner, 1985)


Support for an integrated model of school disaffection

Support for an integrated model of school disaffection

  • Social Environments

  • Association between parental support of basic psychological needs and optimal outcomes

    • dropping out of school associated with perceptions of teachers and parents as less autonomy-supportive and perception of self as less autonomous and competent (Hardre& Reeve, 2003; Vallerand, Fortier, & Guay, 1997).


I think education is bulls t understanding the pathway to disaffection in school excluded young people

  • Motivation and cognitions

  • Link between achievement goals and attributions, and behavioural outcomes

    • ‘performance goal orientations’ – failure results in threat to self-esteem leading to feelings of anxiety, depression, and shame, leading to self-handicapping and disruptive behaviour (Ames, 1992; Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Thompson, 2004).


I think education is bulls t understanding the pathway to disaffection in school excluded young people

  • Self

  • Link between multiple self-construalsand disaffection

    • school-excluded pupils generate more impossible future selves and have more negative perceptions of their futures compared to non school-excluded pupils(Mainwaring & Hallam, 2010).


Study i aim and research question

Study I: Aim and research question

  • Aim:

    • Address the lack of qualitative research, underpinned by psychological frameworks, which examines the lived experiences of school excluded pupils.

    • Evaluate, and further develop, a model of disaffection

    • Do the experiences of school-excluded pupils fit with an understanding of the psychological processes of self-discrepancies and achievement goals as mediating the link between troubled social backgrounds and a problematic behavioural/ emotional profile?


Method

Method

  • Participants

    • ten PRU and ex-PRU pupils (6 female, 4 male; aged 14-20 years; mixed ethnicity: 4 mixed race, 4 black, 1 white, 1 South-Asian)

    • six staff (2 female,4 male; 5 white, 1 black)

  • Semi-structured interviews

    • Questions

      • experiences at school and PRU

      • the experience of being excluded

      • relationships with teachers, peers and others

      • attitude to education

      • aspirations

      • self-concepts

  • Analysis

    • Transcripts analysed using theory driven thematic analysis


Key findings model of school disaffection

Key findings – Model of school disaffection

  • Self-construals

  • Social Environments

  • Orientation to school

  • Aspirations


I think education is bulls t understanding the pathway to disaffection in school excluded young people

Behavioural disengagement from school

Disinterest

Anti-social behaviour

Resistance to authority

Absence

Distraction

Helpless behaviours

YP-1: […] I went to college to do A-Levels; I think I lasted about two weeks. […] I was just like, aw this is just like school, why bother, so I didn’t bother with it (Female, 20).

  • Orientation to school

Negative emotions

Anger

Sadness

Hopelessness

Frustration

Anxiety

Embarrassment

YP-6: When it’s really hard I don’t understand it and I get frustrated (Male, 16).


I think education is bulls t understanding the pathway to disaffection in school excluded young people

‘Fixed’ mindset

Intelligence as ‘fixed’

  • Aspirations

Extrinsic motivation

Money as motivator

Lack of intrinsic motivation and task enjoyment

YP-1: I’m not as smart as you think, [...] there’s a certain limit there… that’s as smart as I can get (Female, 20).

Performance goals

Focused on outcomes of learning i.e. qualification for job

YP-1: I’ve tried to go to college, [...] I don’t think it would’ve ever worked out… because there’s nothing that I’d say I’m so interested in that I’d go and study for years and stick to it […] it’d just piss me off, I wouldn’t be able to do that… if I’m going to do something now I’d want to know, well that’s going to get me a job right at the end of it (Female, 20).

YP-6: I think [education] is bulls**t. [...]

Int: And what keeps you doing it then?

YP-6: The money really, till you get a job (Male,16).


I think education is bulls t understanding the pathway to disaffection in school excluded young people

  • YP-6: I see myself in the future as, like, not getting a job and stuff. Something really bad (Male, 16).

Possible selves

Lack of ideal self

Unrealistic ideal self or ideal self and no realistic strategies

Feared self as expected self

YP-4: I thought [getting sent to the PRU] meant that I didn’t… I wasn’t going to get nothing, go nowhere in life[...] I wasn’t going to be able to achieve anything [...] that’s what I thought anyway (Female, 17).

YP-3: I’ve always got a brick wall around me. [...] you’ll never see me … you’ll never see the true – who I really am, who I always want to be but don’t feel that I’m able to (Female, 16).

Inauthentic/’False’ self

Detached self-reliant self

Conflict between wanting to be perceived as ‘nice’ and wishing to be feared

Self as Failure

Lack of believed in ‘hoped-for’ self

  • Self-construals


I think education is bulls t understanding the pathway to disaffection in school excluded young people

School Environments

Failure to understand circumstances and experiences of young people

Controlling responses

YP-4: [The school staff] didn’t care. [...] They knew that the school was bad; they knew that the people there was bad, so they just didn’t really care [...] (Female, 14).

YP-3: [Pupils who have been excluded] probably don’t even care that they’ve been kicked out of school. They’re more worried about what’s going on at home (Female, 16).

Chronic instability at home and community disadvantage

Lack of positive parenting

No positive, realistic role models

Norm of disadvantage and anti-social behaviour in community

Parental expectations lacking or unachievable

  • Social Environments

Peer Pressure

To be perceived as ‘bad’

Pursue needs through anti-social behaviour and relationships with deviant peers


I think education is bulls t understanding the pathway to disaffection in school excluded young people

School Environments

Failure to understand circumstances and experiences of young people

Controlling responses

Chronic instability at home and community disadvantage

Lack of positive parenting

No positive, realistic role models

Norm of disadvantage and anti-social behaviour in community

Parental expectations lacking or unachievable

YP-3: I mean I was involved with a gang when I was like 13 [...] I was just running around with like people, just doing bad things but… y’know, you don’t have to be in a gang to, beat someone up or, y’know, rob someone. […] Had problems at home [...] it’s a way of dealing with things really, a coping mechanism (Female, 16).

  • Social Environments

Peer Pressure

To be perceived as ‘bad’

Pursue needs through anti-social behaviour and relationships with deviant peers


I think education is bulls t understanding the pathway to disaffection in school excluded young people

Positive responses to the PRU environment

Supportive school environment

Focus on building relationships between staff and pupils

Teachers’ understanding of pupils’ experiences outside of school environment

Realistic goals set

Recognition of achievements

Staff belief in pupils’ competence and positive futures

Positive choices

Realistic positive hoped-for self

Sense of autonomy in making positive choices

  • Room for hope

YP-4: I felt people [in the PRU] listened to you more [...] obviously they’re more understanding because they know people that’s coming there is got… problems, or troubles [...] so… if something was wrong they’ll try and find out or they’ll tell you to calm down or they’ll make you go and speak to someone and… stuff like that. So it was really really good (Female, 17).


Conclusion and questions for future research

Conclusion and questions for future research

  • Initial attempt looking at possible mediators of the link between social background and behavioural and emotional outcomes supports an integrated model of disaffection.

  • Future research

    • Systematically investigate the links between these different psychological processes

    • How do they interact? Are links reciprocal?


Study ii aim and research question

Study II: Aim and research question

  • Survey study aim:

    • Quantitative investigation of links between psychological processes in model

    • Address the lack of research into engagement/disengagement with school-excluded pupils.

  • Research question

    • What does the pathway between the psychological processes implicated in the development of disaffection look like?

    • How do the these processes interact? Are links reciprocal?


Method1

Method

  • Participants

    • 102 PRU pupils (62 male, 33 female, 7 unknown), years 7 – 11

    • Age range 11 – 17 years (M = 14.97, SD = 1.37)

    • Ethnicity: 74% White, 10% Black, 5% mixed, 11% other/unknown


Scales

Scales

Global self worth scale Harter (1988)

The Perception of False Self Scale (Weir & Jose, 2010)

  • Learning Climate Questionnaire (LCQ) (Williams & Deci, 1996)

  • Self

  • Social vignettes

  • Life event scale Ystgaard (1997); Swearingen and Cohen (1985); Attar, Guerra, & Tolan, (1994)

  • Behaviour and emotion

  • Social Environments

  • Perception of

  • Parents Scale (POPS) (Grolnick, Ryan, & Deci, 1991)

  • Motivation and cognitions

Aspiration Index (AI) (Grouzet, Kasser, et al., 2005);

Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (PALS) (Midgely et al., 2000)

Sydney Attribution Scale (SAS) (Marsh, 1984)


Preliminary findings

Preliminary findings

Global self worth scale

.52***

The Perception of False Self Scale

-.35**

  • POPS

* = p < .05; ** = p < .01; *** = p < .001


Preliminary findings1

Preliminary findings

  • POPS

.30**

-.28*

.26*

PALS (Mastery)

-.27*

AI intrinsic

AI extrinsic

* = p < .05; ** = p < .01; *** = p < .001


Preliminary findings2

Preliminary findings

  • Angry

-.30**

-.32**

  • Neg better

  • POPS

  • Social vignettes

-.23*

  • Neg liked

-.24*

  • Neg respect

  • Neg solve prob

-.31**

* = p < .05; ** = p < .01; *** = p < .001


Tentative conclusions and unanswered questions

Tentative conclusions and unanswered questions

  • Some early support for the qualitative study and theoretical model of school disaffection more generally

  • Pathway analysis

  • How do they interact? Are links reciprocal?


I think education is bulls t understanding the pathway to disaffection in school excluded young people

With thanks to:

Robin Banerjee


  • Login