Two dimensional echocardiography
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Two Dimensional Echocardiography. Views and Measurements. Echocardiographic Examination. Echocardiographic Examination. The Windows (Transducer Location) Parasternal Apical Subcostal Suprasternal. Echocardiographic Examination. Echocardiographic Examination.

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Two Dimensional Echocardiography

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Two DimensionalEchocardiography

Views and Measurements


Echocardiographic Examination


Echocardiographic Examination

  • The Windows (Transducer Location)

  • Parasternal

  • Apical

  • Subcostal

  • Suprasternal


Echocardiographic Examination


Echocardiographic Examination


Echocardiographic Examination


Echocardiographic Examination


Echocardiographic Examination


Echocardiographic Examination


Echocardiographic Examination


Echocardiographic Examination

  • Transducer motion

  • Translation (movement)

  • Tilting or pointing

  • Angulation

  • Rotation


Views

  • PLAX

  • RVIT


Views

  • PSAX – Aortic Valve

  • PSAX – Mitral Valve

  • PSAX – Papillary Muscle

  • PSAX - Apex


Views

  • Apical 4-Chamber

  • Apical 2-Chamber

  • Apical 3-Chamber (Apical Long Axis)

  • Apical 5 Chamber


Views

  • Subcostal 4 Chamber

  • Subcostal 5 Chamber

  • Subcostal Short Axis


Views

  • Suprasternal Long Axis

  • Suprasternal Short Axis

  • Right Parasternal View


Two Dimensional Evaluation

Wall

  • Thickness

  • Systolic thickening

  • Scarring

  • Systolic motion


Two Dimensional Evaluation

Septum

  • Thickness

  • Systolic thickening

  • Scarring

  • Systolic motion


Two Dimensional Evaluation

Chamber size

  • Ventricles

  • Atria

  • Aorta

  • Pulmonary artery


Two Dimensional Evaluation

Valves

  • Thickening

  • Calcification

  • Motion


Two Dimensional Evaluation

Subvalvular apparatus

  • Chordae tendinaea

  • Papillary muscle


Two Dimensional Evaluation

Masses

  • Thrombus

  • Tumors

  • Vegetations


Two Dimensional Evaluation

Pericardium

  • Thickening

  • Effusion

    • Pericardial

    • Pleural


PLAX View


PLAX View


PLAX View


PLAX


2-D Measurement

  • Aortic diameter

  • LVOT diameter

  • LA dimension


2-D Measurement

  • RVWd

  • RVIDd


2-D Measurement

  • IVSd

  • IVSs


M-mode Measurement

  • LVIDd

  • LVIDd index

  • LVIDs

  • LVIDs index


2-D Measurement

  • LVPWd

  • LVPWs


Evaluation of LV Systolic Function

ESD = LVIDs

EDD = LVIDd

FS= LVIDd - LVIDs

LVIDd


Evaluation of LV Systolic Function

EF = LVIDd3 – LVIDs3

LVIDd3


RVIT


RVIT - Diameter


PSAX – Aortic Valve


PSAX – Diameter


PSAX – Diameter


PSAX – Mitral Valve


PSAX – Papillary Muscle


Evaluation of LV Mass

This is done by tracing the epicardial to calculate the total ventricular volume and the endocardial border to calculate chamber volume.

LV mass = 1.05 (total volume – chamber volume)


Evaluation of LV Mass

Total volume= Total area x length

Chamber volume = Chamber area x Length

Myocardial volume = Total volume – Chamber volume

LV mass = Myocardial volume x density

LV mass = Myocardial volume x 1.05


PSAX – Epicardial Border Trace


PSAX – Endocardial Border Trace


PSAX - Apex


Apical – 4 Chamber


Apical-4 Chamber

LV Length


Apical – 4 Chamber

RA and LA Area


Simpson’s Rule

For this method, endocardial borders are traced in apical four-chamber and two-chamber views and are used to define a series of orthogonal diameters (a and b) as follows:

V = (p ) S ai bi x (L)

4 20

Using 20 disk for i = 1 to i = 20

This calculation is done by computer software.


Simpson’s

Apical 4-Chamber Diastole


Simpson’s

Apical 4-Chamber Diastole


Simpson’s

Apical 4-Chamber Systole


Simpson’s

Apical 4-Chamber Systole


Simpson’s

Apical 2 – Chamber Diastole


Simpson’s

Apical 2-Chamber Diastole


Simpson’s

Apical 2-Chamber Systole


Simpson’s

Apical 2-Chamber Systole


Apical 5-Chamber


Apical – Two Chamber


Apical – Long Axis


Wall Segments

In the short axis view at the base

(MV), the LV is divided into:

  • Anterior wall

  • Lateral wall

  • Posterior wall

  • Inferior wall

  • Interior septal wall

  • Anterior septal wall


Wall Segments

In the short axis view at the mid-left

ventricle (the papillary muscle level),

the LV is divided into:

  • Anterior wall

  • Lateral wall

  • Posterior wall

  • Inferior wall

  • Interior septal wall

  • Anterior septal wall


Wall Segments

In the short axis view at the apex

the LV is divided into:

  • Anterior wall

  • Postero-lateral wall

  • Inferior wall


Wall Segments


Wall Segments


Wall Segments


Wall Segments


Wall Segments


Wall Segments


Subcostal – 4 Chamber


Subcostal 5-Chamber


PSAX - Apex


Subcostal Short Axis


Subcostal Short Axis


Subcostal – Short Axis


Suprasternal Long Axis


Suprasternal Short Axis


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