Chapter 2
Download
1 / 28

Theory and Research Dr. Arra - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 141 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 2. Theory and Research Dr. Arra. Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Philosophies of Childhood. John Locke – (1632 -1704) 17 th century British Philosopher Writings served as a forerunner for 20 th century behaviorism

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Theory and Research Dr. Arra' - misae


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 2 l.jpg

Chapter 2

Theory and Research

Dr. Arra

Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Philosophies of childhood l.jpg
Philosophies of Childhood

  • John Locke – (1632 -1704)

  • 17th century British Philosopher

  • Writings served as a forerunner for 20th century behaviorism

  • Forerunner of mechanistic model (views development as a passive, predictable response to stimuli)


Locke l.jpg
Locke

  • Viewed the child as a tabula rasa or blank slate

  • Children begin with nothing at all, and it is experiences that shape their development

  • Nurture

  • Parents mold and shape children


Early theory l.jpg
Early Theory

  • Jean Rousseau (1712-1778)

  • French Philosopher

  • Children are not blank slates

  • Genetics or nature that determines development

  • Children determine their own destinies

  • Forerunner to organismic model (development initiated by an active organism)


Theoretical perspectives l.jpg
Theoretical Perspectives

  • psychoanalytic

  • learning

  • cognitive

Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Perspective 1 psychoanalytic l.jpg
Perspective 1: Psychoanalytic

  • Sigmund Freud and psychosexual development

  • Erik Erikson and psychosocial development

Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Mid twentieth century theories l.jpg
Mid-Twentieth Century Theories

  • Freud’s psychosexual theory – emphasizes that how parents manage their child’s sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development.


Freud s psychosexual stages l.jpg
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages

  • Oral (0-1) If needs not met overeating, smoking, nail biting

  • Anal (1-3) excessive orderliness

  • Phallic (3-6) Oedipus, Electra

  • Latency (6-11)

  • Genital (Adolescence)


Erikson s psychosocial theory l.jpg
Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

Theory emphasizes that at each stage an individual acquires attitudes and skills that make the individual an active, contributing member of society


Erikson s psychosocial theory10 l.jpg
Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

  • Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1) attachment, waiting too long for comfort

  • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1-3) choose and decide for themselves, or are stifled by parents

  • Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6) develop responsibility, overcontrolling parents lead to guilt


Erikson s psychosocial theory11 l.jpg
Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

  • Industry vs. Diffusion (6-11) children become industrious at school, feel incompetent at school due to negative experiences

  • Identity vs. Identity Confusion (Adolescence) Who am I?, confusion about future adult roles

  • Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood) establish intimate ties, remain isolated


Erikson s psychosocial theory12 l.jpg
Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

  • Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood) giving back to the next generation, absence of meaningful accomplishment

  • Ego Integrity vs. Despair ( Old age) reflect on life; integrity- life worth living

    dissatisfied- fear death


Perspective 2 learning l.jpg
Perspective 2: Learning

  • behaviorism

    • classical conditioning (Pavlov; genetic/reflexive behaviors)

    • operant conditioning (reinforcement, punishment, s>r model, schedules of reinforcement, types of reinforcers)

  • social learning theory (attend, reproduce, maintain, motivation)

  • Bandura – observing, imitating, modeling

Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Perspective 3 cognitive l.jpg
Perspective 3: Cognitive

  • Jean Piaget’s cognitive-stage theory

  • Information-Processing Approach

    input>storage>retrieval

    Cal Tech 1950’s

    Beginning of Cognitive Movement

Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Piaget s stages of cognitive development l.jpg
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

  • Sensorimotor (0-2)

  • Preoperational (2-7)

  • Concrete Operations (7-11) NOT EGOCENTRIC

  • Formal operations (11>)


Piaget l.jpg
Piaget

  • Scheme – organized patterns of behavior

  • Assimilation – incorporating information into an existing scheme

  • Accomodation – changing schemes to fit new information

  • Equilibration

  • operations


Perspective 5 contextual l.jpg
Perspective 5: Contextual

  • Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

  • Learning is socially embedded

  • ZPD

  • Scaffolding

  • Cognitive

  • Children learn from adults and children learn in social settings

Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Research methods l.jpg

Research Methods

How do developmental scientists study people?

Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Research methods19 l.jpg
Research Methods

  • quantitative research

  • scientific method

    • identify problem

    • formulate hypothesis

    • collect data

    • analyze data

    • disseminate findings

Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Research methods20 l.jpg
Research Methods

  • quantitative research

  • scientific method

  • qualitative research

    • open-ended

    • exploratory

Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Research methods21 l.jpg
Research Methods

  • Forms of Data Collection

    • self reports

    • behavioral and performance measures

    • naturalistic and laboratory observation

    • Interviews

    • questionnaires

Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Basic research designs l.jpg
Basic Research Designs

  • Case Study

  • Ethnographic Study

  • Correlational Study

  • Naturalistic Observations

Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Basic research designs23 l.jpg
Basic Research Designs

  • Longitudinal Design

  • Cross-sectional design

  • Case study

  • Correlational design

  • Structured observation


Basic research designs24 l.jpg
Basic Research Designs

  • Experimental design

    independent variable

    dependent variable

    control group

    random assignment

    results are causative in nature


Basic research designs25 l.jpg
Basic Research Designs

  • Quasi- experimental design


Developmental research designs l.jpg
Developmental Research Designs

  • Longitudinal

  • Cross-Sectional

  • Sequential

  • Microgenetic

Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Ethics of research l.jpg

Rights of Participants in Research

Informed consent

Avoidance of deception

Privacy and confidentiality

Protection from harm

Knowledge of results

Ethics of Research

Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Window on the world l.jpg

Windowon the World

The Cultural Context: Purposes of Cross-Cultural Research

Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


ad