Preparing effective trainers
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Preparing Effective Trainers. to accompany the instructional guide. Seminar Goals. At the conclusion of this seminar, participants will be able to. identify training opportunities apply the components of a training cycle to develop a training program

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Preparing Effective Trainers

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Preparing effective trainers

Preparing Effective Trainers

to accompany the instructional guide


Seminar goals

Seminar Goals

At the conclusion of this seminar, participants will be able to

  • identify training opportunities

  • apply the components of a training cycle to develop a training program

  • complete a front-end analysis, including a task analysis

  • construct training objectives

  • classify training objectives according to levels of learning

  • identify training opportunities

  • select appropriate training methods and materials

  • differentiate between knowledge and skill tasks

  • develop and apply a training curriculum

  • evaluate training

  • conduct effective training sessions.


Training opportunities

Training Opportunities

  • New employees

  • Employee promotion/new position

  • New procedures

  • New equipment

  • New products

  • New services

  • New policies, regulations, and laws

  • Performance improvement

  • Reduction of negative behavior

  • Safety


The training process

The Training Process


Eight elements for analysis

Eight Elements for Analysis

Needs

Problems

Goals

Population

  • Resources

  • Constraints

  • Job Analysis

  • Task Analysis


Needs analysis

Needs Analysis

Skills/Knowledge Needed

The Training

Gap

Skills/Knowledge Known


Problem analysis

Problem Analysis

What’s causing the problem?

Once the problem is understood, you can determine…

The solution may not be training.


Activity

Activity

  • Sales at the Shoddy Shoe Store have decreased by 20% since last year. What are some possible reasons?

  • For each potential reason, will training help?


Goal analysis

Goal Analysis

  • The objective is to identify the important goals of all people who have a legitimate interest in the training program's outcomes.

  • An example of a training goal:

    This training program will provide participants with an opportunity to learn specific customer-service skills, in person and over the telephone, that will build customer confidence and enhance customer loyalty.


Population person analysis

Population (Person) Analysis

Describes the characteristics of people who should participate in the training program.

What are we trying to do with the population description?


Resource analysis

Resource Analysis

identifies what resources will be available and useful to program developers and instructors/ facilitators.


Constraints analysis

Constraints Analysis

A developer needs to know

the constraints on developing and presenting a training program

the available resources.

Typical constraints include

budget

time

space.


Job analysis

Job Analysis

  • Before people can be trained for a new job, someone must identify the duties and responsibilities included in the job.

A job analysis breaks down job responsibilities.


Job analysis cashier

Job Analysis—Cashier

Job analysis data will help a trainer determine the objectives and goals for a training course. This is the starting point in curriculum development.

  • Interacts with customers

  • Handles transactions/ purchases

  • Keeps inventory

  • Records information for delivery of purchases


Task analysis

Task Analysis

  • Breaking down the general job duties and responsibilities intoindividual tasks

  • Breaking down each task into steps

This is critical because these “steps” are the content for the instruction you will plan.


Course content development

Course Content Development


Job description gas station mechanic attendant

Job Description: Gas Station Mechanic/Attendant

Perform vehicle repair and maintenance.

Maintain an operable environment.

Perform sales.


Task listing gas station mechanic attendant

Task Listing:Gas Station Mechanic/Attendant

1. Clean or replace spark plugs. (1)

2. Adjust and bleed brakes. (1)

3. Replace wheel cylinders. (1)

4. Inspect and flush radiators. (1)

5. Test antifreeze. (1)

6. Repair tube or tubeless tires. (1)

7. Rotate tires. (1)

8. Lubricate vehicles. (1)

9. Balance tires. (1)

10. Replace air cleaners. (1)

11. Clean or replace gas filters. (1)

12. Wash and wax autos. (1)

13. Sell auto accessories. (3)

14. Sell service plans. (3)

15. Replace oil filters. (1)

16. Check oil, brake fluid, power steering, other fluids. (1)

17. Wash windshields, replace blades. (1)

18. Fill gas tanks, radiators. (1)

19. Maintain daily records of sales, inventory changes. (3)

20. Order supplies. (2)

21. Open and close station. (2)

22. Clean garage. (2)


Preparing effective trainers

Task Detail:

Gas Station Mechanic/Attendant

Task Detail

1. Clean or replace spark plugs.

1a. Note the plug location relative to the cylinder.

1b. Remove all spark plugs.

1c. Identify the type of plugs.

1d. Decide whether or not to replace plugs.

1e. Clean plugs, if necessary.

1f. Replace spark plugs in engine.

1g. Connect ignition wires to appropriate plugs.

1h. Check for performance.

1i. Clean tools and equipment.

Task Listing

1.Clean or replace spark plugs.

2. Adjust and bleed brakes.

3. Replace wheel cylinders.

4. Inspect and flush radiators.

5. Test antifreeze.

6. Repair tube or tubeless tires.

7. Rotate tires.

8. Lubricate vehicles.

9. Balance tires.

10. Replace air cleaners.

11.Clean or replace gas filters.

12.Wash and wax autos.


Design

Design

Write the objectives from the task analysis.

Design (not write) the test items for each objective.

Segment and sequence the instruction.

Plan the instructional strategies.


Performance objectives

Performance Objectives

  • Tasks—What is the employee expected to know or do at the conclusion of the training?

  • Conditions—Under what conditions are learners expected to perform?

  • Standards—How will the learner’s performance be measured, and what is the minimal acceptable standard?


Performance objectives1

Performance Objectives

Example: If the task from the task list is complete a contract, then the training objective might be:

“Given a standard xyz sales contract and customer information, complete a contract with fewer than three errors.”


Performance objectives2

Performance Objectives

Given a paper and pencil, describe the elements of the marketing mix according to Marketing My Way by John Arno, pp. 135–142.

Task: describe the elements of the marketing mix

Condition:given a paper and pencil

Standard: according to Marketing My Way by John Arno, pp. 135–142


Performance objectives3

Performance Objectives

Given a screwdriver, a light switch, and a schematic diagram, install a light switch so that the light illuminates when the switch is turned to the “on” position.

Task: install a light switch

Condition:given a screwdriver, a light switch, and a schematic diagram

Standard: so that the light illuminates when the switch is turned to the “on” position


Words to avoid

Words to Avoid

  • know

  • understand

  • appreciate

  • grasp

  • learn how to

  • believe

What do these words have in common?

You can’t measure them!


Six levels of learning

Six Levels of Learning


Knowledge lesson sequencing

Knowledge-Lesson Sequencing

Introduction

Explain—deliver the content.

Activity—reinforce the content.

Summary


Skill lesson sequencing

Skill-Lesson Sequencing

Introduction

Show—demonstrate at full speed.

Show and tell—demonstrate and explain individual steps.

Check for understanding.

Practice.


Development

Development

Training materials

Training documentation

Facilities and equipment

Personnel

Evaluation materials


Implementation

Implementation

Learners arrive, the course is taught, and participants' learning is evaluated.

Information is collected. What types of information are collected?


Evaluation

Evaluation

Analyze trainees’/students’ performance during the course.

Analyze the completers’ performance after the course.

Analyze how the course ran.

Check the workplace to see how it has changed.


Evaluation1

Evaluation

  • Internal evaluation is based on the evaluation when the course is taking place. Student and instructor feedback, as well as test performance, help the trainer to understand if the students are learning the material and if they are learning what they should be learning.

  • External evaluation takes place once the course has ended. It helps the trainer assess the effectiveness of the training. Did production or sales go up? Did the number of accidents or complaints go down? This helps to determine if the training made a difference.


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