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High Performance Design and Construction Energy Efficiency: What is the Target for 21st Century Buildings? Karl Brown Deputy Director PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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(photo courtesy Kris Kinney). High Performance Design and Construction Energy Efficiency: What is the Target for 21st Century Buildings? Karl Brown Deputy Director California Institute for Energy Efficiency University of California Office of the President.

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High Performance Design and Construction Energy Efficiency: What is the Target for 21st Century Buildings? Karl Brown Deputy Director

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High performance design and construction energy efficiency what is the target for 21st century buildings karl brown

(photo courtesy Kris Kinney)

High Performance Design and Construction

Energy Efficiency:

What is the Target

for 21st Century Buildings?

Karl Brown

Deputy Director

California Institute for Energy Efficiency

University of California

Office of the President


High performance design and construction energy efficiency what is the target for 21st century buildings karl brown

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy EfficiencyWhat is the Target for 21st Century Buildings?

80% of the energy load of typical 1999 buildings?

65%?

50%?

35%?

20%?


High performance design and construction energy efficiency what is the target for 21st century buildings karl brown

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy EfficiencyWhat is the Target for 21st Century Buildings?

<50%of the energy load of typical 1999 buildings


High performance design and construction energy efficiency what is the target for 21st century buildings karl brown

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy EfficiencyWhat is the Target for 21st Century Buildings?

“Factors of Two” in New Construction

  • Good Lighting Design> 1.5 vs. < 1 Watt per sq. ft. (Labs)

  • Elimination of Reheat

  • Good Air System Design

    • Low Pressure Drop> 8” is typical, < 4” is good design (Labs)

    • Tight Ducts30% leakage doubles fan power


High performance design and construction energy efficiency what is the target for 21st century buildings karl brown

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency What is the Target for 21st Century Buildings?

“Factors of Two” in New Construction (Laboratories)

  • Indirect EvaporativeTemper (100%) outside air Pre-Cooling (drop delta T from 30 to 15 degrees F)

  • Low-Flow Fume Hoods


High performance design and construction energy efficiency berkeley hood low flow fume hood lbnl

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency “Berkeley Hood” Low Flow Fume Hood (LBNL)

  • Energy Use

    Standard Fume Hood = House

  • “Berkeley Hood”

    • Developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    • 50% or less air flow

    • Equivalent or improved containment and capture

  • Test installations

    • Montana State University

    • UC San Francisco

    • San Diego State (pending)


High performance design and construction energy efficiency what is the target for 21st century buildings karl brown

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency What is the Target for 21st Century Buildings?

Additional Important Design Features for UC Merced

  • Control of Solar LoadAdvanced windows and sun shading

  • Individual HVAC ControlSome faculty offices

  • Operable WindowsMost faculty offices, some small classrooms

  • Commissioning“…by any other name…”

  • Energy Performance MonitoringMeasure success

    Optimize operations

    Feedback to design

    Academic program


High performance design and construction energy efficiency what is the target for 21st century buildings karl brown

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency Energy Monitoring Applications: Building Subsystems

Chiller Performance

(illustration courtesy Lee Eng Lock)


High performance design and construction energy efficiency what is the target for 21st century buildings karl brown

Monitoring Reveals More “Factors of Two” in EfficiencyDistrict Steam (◊) vs. Other Thermal Systems ()Coastal and Central California Climate

UC/CSU Campus Gas Use vs. Complex Building Fraction

(heating degree days is 2nd variable)


High performance design and construction energy efficiency uc merced infrastructure measures

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency UC Merced Infrastructure Measures

  • No district steam heating

  • Chilled water thermal storage

  • Cluster lab buildings around plant

  • Large pipes and small pumps

    • (not vice versa)

  • Rational plant sizing


High performance design and construction energy efficiency what is the target for 21st century buildings karl brown

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency What is the Target for 21st Century Buildings?

“Factor of Two” in Plant Design—Typical Scenario

1) Design engineers estimate cooling load at 1,200 tons

2) Campus engineers argue design engineers back to 600 tons

3) Fully occupied and utilized facility never uses more than 300 tons


High performance design and construction energy efficiency what is the target for 21st century buildings karl brown

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency Recap of UC Merced Design Measures and Technology

  • Advanced Lighting Systems*

  • Advanced Windows*

  • Sun Shading

  • Duct Sealing*

  • Efficient HVAC Design

  • Efficient Laboratory Air System Design*

  • Comfort and Indoor Air Quality Standards*

  • Advanced Energy Metering and Control Systems*

  • Systems Commissioning

  • Integrated Planning of Building Loads and Infrastructure Capacity

    * Technologies developed with the help of UC through Berkeley Lab and other campuses.


High performance design and construction energy efficiency what is the target for 21st century buildings karl brown

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency What is the Target for 21st Century Buildings?

Clues in the Literature:

  • Canadian C-2000 Program (60%)

    • Todesco, G. 1996. “Super-Efficient Buildings: How Low Can You Go?” ASHRAE Journal. 38:12:35-40. Atlanta GA. American Society of Heating Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers.

  • State of Utah (50-78%)

    • Case and Windergerden. 1998. “Incentive Program for Energy Efficient Design of State Buildings”. In Proceedings of the 1996 ACEEE Summer Study of Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Washington D.C. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy

  • PG&E ACTT Antioch Project (36%)

    • Hernandez, G.; E. Kolderup; G. Syphers. 1997. ACT2 CSAA Commercial Site Impact Evaluation Report. San Francisco CA. Eley Associates and Pacific Gas & Electric Co. http://www.pge.com/customer_services/other/pec/act2/act2over.html

  • LBNL Applications Team: California Lab-type Facilities (50%)

    • Mills et al. 1996. “Energy Efficiency in California Laboratory-type Facilities”. LBNL-39061. Berkeley CA. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


High performance design and construction energy efficiency what is the target for 21st century buildings karl brown

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy EfficiencyWhat is the Target for 21st Century Buildings?

UC Merced

Efficient Design Scenario

Energy Load as % of

1999 UC Average Benchmark*

Buildings Opening in

2004 2005-2007 2008-->

80% 65% 50%

*concurrent with all cooling load shifted off-peak


High performance design and construction energy efficiency uc merced load projection maximum demand

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency UC Merced Load Projection (Maximum Demand)

20042007

(2004 plant)

Space (gsf)0.7 million1.2 million8.6 million

Scenario

  • Base (business-as-usual)3.6 MW6.3 MW46 MW

  • Load Management2.7 MW4.8 MW34 MW

  • Efficient Design2.1 MW3.5 MW18 MW


High performance design and construction energy efficiency what is the target for 21st century buildings karl brown

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency Strategic Energy Planning (Enron/UC/CSU Contract)Santa BarbaraScenarios


High performance design and construction energy efficiency interventions

Set firm goals

Establish efficiency as a priority early in programming and budgeting

Select A&E consultants with efficiency as a part of their core practice

Provide resources to engineers and lighting designers early in design

Integrate with infrastructure planning (campus setting)

Value engineering of “margins of safety”

Demand good documentation (commissioning)

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency Interventions


High performance design and construction energy efficiency resources

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency Resources

  • Benchmarking

  • LEED™

  • “Savings By Design”

    • statewide public goods fund program

  • 2001 Advanced Lighting Design Guidelines

  • Design Guide for Energy Efficient Research Laboratories

    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Applications Team

  • Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) Partnership

    • with U.S. EPA and U.S. DOE


High performance design and construction energy efficiency uc acknowledgements

UC Merced

Chancellor Carol Tomlinson-Keasey

Cliff Graves

Bob Badgley

Chris Adams

Juan Beltranena

Cynthia Hughes

Pam Moody

UC Programs

Scott Samuelsen, UCI

Jack Brouwer, UCI

Harrison Fraker, UCB

John Klopf, UCB

Jeff Dozier, UCSB

Dennis Aigner, UCSB

Mo Lovegreen, UCSB

Dale Sartor, LBNL

UCOP

Clifton Bowen

Maric Munn

Gary Matteson

Johnny Torrez

Jim Smith

Joanne Cate

Trudis Heinecke

UC/CSU Facilities

Tony Valenzuela, CSU

Paul Black, UCB

Adney Bowker, UCD

Grant Fulgham, UCSB

Paul Howland, UCI

George Palmer, UCR

Keith Roberts, UCD

Dick Smith, CSU Fresno

Victor Takahashi, CSU Stanislaus

Gerry White, UCSD

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency UC Acknowledgements


High performance design and construction energy efficiency for more information

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency For More Information

Karl Brown

[email protected]

510/643-1617


High performance design and construction energy efficiency

High Performance Design and Construction: Energy Efficiency

  • “If decisions were a choice between alternatives, decisions would come easy. Decision is the selection and formulation of alternatives.”

    • Kenneth Burke, American literary critic and poet


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