Ethology: The Study of Instincts. Konrad Lorenz. Karl von Frisch. Niko Tinbergen. Nobel Laureates, 1973. Instinctive Motor Behavior. Infant primates hold onto their mothers' hair so as not fall off when she moves briskly. .
Karl von Frisch
Nobel Laureates, 1973
Instinctive Motor Behavior
Infant primates hold onto their mothers' hair so as not fall off when she moves briskly.
A cardinal feeds minnows, which rose to the surface looking for food. During several weeks the bird fed them, probably because his nest had been destroyed.
The term instinct derives from Indo European, Greek, and Latin roots meaning “stick” “to goad,” e.g., Latin stiguere -- to goad, excite, or incite; instiguere -- to incite, to instigate. Greek: stigma -- a pricked mark, a brand.
Example: A pond is perceived differently by a: tadpole fish parameciahawk duck fisherman
A supernormal egg that is unusual only in the size of its spots (left) is preferred by the ringed plover (Charadruis hiaticula) to a normal egg (right).
Fixed Action Pattern (Human)
-Positive (e.g., Positive geotropism).
-Negative (e.g., Negative phototropism).
-Orthokinesis: Rate of movement (in any direction) is a function of environmental conditions.
-Klino-kinesis: Rate of turning (but not velocity) is a function of environmental conditions.
Time covered by15’60’15’
each car (min.)
No. of cars2510025
-Gut is empty at beginning of cycle.
-Flight is guided by kineses (e.g., temperature, light level, time of day, odor of fermenting sugars in plants).
-Taxes guide approach to specific stimuli.
-Blowfly lands on leaf.
-Sugar receptors on hairs of legs are stimulated.
-Proboscis uncoils reflexively.
-Rate of pumping from proboscis to crop is a function of sweetness and adaptation level of sugar receptors. Sweetness steadily decreases.-Sweetness eventually falls below some critical value; pumping resumes.-Intake is not a simple cyclic function of adaptation of sugar sensors.-The digestive tract regulates the value of threshold for sweetness.-Crop stores food and then transfers it to main gut and to bloodstream.
Foraging Cycle of Blowfly, cont’d
Critical Periods for Development of Behavior
White crown sparrow’s song: 10-50 days
Gosling’s following behavior: 4-17 days
Test: Will gosling
follow duck that
Test: Will gosling
to follow duck?