Pacific Mountain System Coast Ranges. North Coastal Ranges. South Coastal Ranges. Coast ranges. Most Mountain peaks at around 4,000 ft. 550 miles long (North & South) Divided into Northern and Southern Ranges at San Francisco Bay
North Coastal Ranges
South Coastal Ranges
Poor competitors survive on serpentine:
In North Coast Ranges: chaparral with Chamise
In wetter areas: Closed Cone Pines, Jeffery Pine or Incense Cedar predominate
Specialists plants adapted to serpentine:
Shrubby forms of California bay
Macnab Cypress in interior North Coast Ranges
Very common in moist Coastal forests
West of Rockies, Adults over-winter in coastal valleys from Bolinas, to Ensenada.
Eastern Monarchs migrate to central Mexico.
Only known insect that migrates over long distances.
3000 miles to MX
660 miles AZ to CA
Larvae (caterpillars) eat Milkweed, and accumulate the toxic cardiac glycosides. The Monarchs are immune but their predators are not.
Monarchs are protected by these compounds from being eaten in general. A few must be lost so birds learn to avoid them.
Predators (birds) learn to avoid adult monarchs by their coloration.