Chinese dynasties
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Chinese Dynasties. River Valley Dynasties. XIA DYNASTY. Archeological discovery of the Xia is still in its preliminary stage Established about 2200 B.C.E. Legendary King Yu , the dynasty founder, a hero of flood control Erlitou: possibly the capital city of the Xia

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Chinese Dynasties

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Chinese dynasties

Chinese Dynasties


River valley dynasties

River Valley Dynasties


Xia dynasty

XIA DYNASTY

  • Archeological discovery of the Xia is still in its preliminary stage

  • Established about 2200 B.C.E.

  • Legendary King Yu, the dynasty founder, a hero of flood control

  • Erlitou: possibly the capital city of the Xia

  • Chinese scholars believe it existed


The shang dynasty 1766 1122 b c e

THE SHANG DYNASTY: 1766-1122 B.C.E.

  • Arose in the southern, eastern areas

  • Many records, material remains discovered

  • Bronze metallurgy, monopolized by elite

  • Agricultural surpluses supported large troops

  • Vast network of walled towns

  • Shang-kings were warriors

  • Constant struggle with nobles for power

  • The Shang capital moved six times

  • Lavish tombs of Shang kings

    • Contained chariots, weapons, bronze goods

    • Sacrificial human victims, dogs, horses


Mandate of heaven

MANDATE OF HEAVEN

  • The right to rule granted by heaven

    • Zhou justified their overthrow of Shang

    • Ruler called "the son of heaven"

    • Only given to virtuous, strong rulers

    • To lose mandate = someone else should rule

    • Replacement of dynasties = Dynastic Cycle

  • Signs one had lost mandate

    • Corruption, heavy taxes

    • Lazy officials and rulers

    • Revolts, invasions, civil wars, crime

    • Natural disasters

    • Society develops bad morals, habits


The zhou dynasty 1122 256 b c e

THE ZHOU DYNASTY: 1122-256 B.C.E.

  • The rise of the Zhou

    • The last Shang king was a bad ruler

    • The Zhou forces toppled the Shang

  • Political organization

    • Adopted decentralized administration

    • Used princes and relatives to rule regions

    • Consequences

      • Weak central government with ceremonial functions

      • Rise of regional powers; often called feudalism

      • Constant rivalry between warring families, nobles


The fall of the zhou

THE FALL OF THE ZHOU

  • Iron metallurgy

    • Iron technology spread; 1st millennium B.C.E.

    • Iron weapons helped regional authorities to resist the central power

    • Qin mastered iron technology, weapons

  • Nomadic invasion sacked capital

  • Other Troubles

    • Territorial princes became more independent

    • Warring States (403-221 B.C.E.)

    • Rise of Qin state

    • Last king abdicated his position in 256 B.C.E.


The classical dynasties 600 bce to 600 ce

The Classical Dynasties600 BCE to 600 CE


Qin statecraft

QIN STATECRAFT

  • Suppressing the resistance

    • Bitterly opposed, was opposed by Confucian scholars

    • Buried 460 scholars alive because of their criticism against the Qin

    • Burned all books except some with utilitarian value

  • Policies of centralization

    • Standardization of laws, currencies, weights, measures

    • Standardized scripts: tried to create uniform language

    • Creates a uniform writing system but not language

  • Tomb of the First Emperor

    • The tomb was an underground palace

    • Excavation of the tomb since 1974

    • Terracotta soldiers and army to protect tomb

  • The collapse of the Qin dynasty

    • Massive public works generated ill will among people

    • Waves of rebels overwhelmed the Qin court in 207 B.C.E.

    • A short-lived dynasty, left deep marks in Chinese history


The early han dynasty

THE EARLY HAN DYNASTY

  • Liu Bang

    • A general, persistent man, a methodical planner

    • Restored order, established dynasty, 206 B.C.E.

  • Han was long-lived dynasty

  • Early Han policies

    • Sought middle way between Zhou and Qin

    • Royal relatives were not reliable, returned to centralized rule

  • Martial Emperor (141-87 B.C.E.)

    • Han Wudi ruled for 54 years

    • Pursued centralization and expansion


Han statecraft

HAN STATECRAFT

  • Han centralization

    • Adopted Legalist policies

      • Built an enormous bureaucracy to rule the empire

      • Continued to build roads and canals

      • Levied taxes on agriculture, trade, and craft industries

      • Imperial monopolies on production of iron and salt

    • Established Confucian educational system for training bureaucrats

      • Confucianism as the basis of the curriculum in imperial university

      • Thirty thousand students enrolled in the university in Later Han

  • Han imperial expansion

    • Invaded and colonized northern Vietnam and Korea

    • Extended China into central Asia

      • Han organized vast armies to invade Xiongnu territory

      • Han enjoyed uncontested hegemony in east and central Asia


Han social structure

HAN SOCIAL STRUCTURE

  • Patriarchal, patrilocal households averaged five inhabitants

  • Large, multigenerational compound families also developed

  • Women's subordination (Ban Zhao Admonitions for Women)

  • Cultivators were the majority of the population

  • Differences apparent between noble, lower class women

  • Scholar bureaucrats: Confucian trained bureaucrats

    • Officials selected through competitive testing

    • Used to run the government in Early Han

  • Scholar Gentry

    • Confucian bureaucrats intermarried with landed elite

    • New class comes to dominate local, national offices

    • Strongest in late Han

  • Merchants held in low social esteem


  • Han troubles

    HAN TROUBLES

    • Expeditions consumed the empire's surplus

      • Raised taxes and confiscated land of some wealthy individuals

      • Taxes, land confiscations discouraged investment

      • Much of defense consumed on defending against nomads

  • Social tensions, stratification between the poor and rich

  • Problems of land distribution

    • Early Han supported land redistribution

    • Economic difficulties forced some small landowners to sell property

    • Some sold themselves or their families into slavery

    • Lands accumulated in the hands of a few

    • No land reform, because Han needed cooperation of large landowners

  • The reign of Wang Mang

    • A powerful Han minister

    • Dethroned the baby emperor, claimed imperial title himself, 9 C.E.

    • Land reforms - the "socialist emperor"

    • Overthrown by revolts, 23 C.E.


  • Post classical dynasties 600 1450

    Post Classical Dynasties600-1450


    Sui dynasty

    SUI DYNASTY

    • After fall of the Han, turmoil lasted for more than 350 years

      • Three major states contended for rule; further fragmentation

      • Nomads constantly invaded, created their own states, dynasties

    • The rule of the Sui

      • Reunification by Yang Jian in 589

      • Constructions of palaces and granaries, repairing the Great Wall

      • Military expeditions in central Asia and Korea

      • High taxes and compulsory labor services

    • The Grand Canal

      • One of the world's largest waterworks before modern times

      • Purpose: bring abundant food supplies of the south to the north

      • Linked the Yangtze and the Huang-Hi

      • The canal integrated the economies of the south and north

    • The fall of the Sui

      • High taxes and forced labor generated hostility among the people

      • Military reverses in Korea

      • Rebellions broke out in north China beginning in 610

      • Sui Yangdi was assassinated in 618, the end of the dynasty


    Images of sui china

    IMAGES OF SUI CHINA


    The tang dynasty

    THE TANG DYNASTY

    • Founding of the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 CE)

      • A rebel leader seized Chang'an, proclaimed a new dynasty, the Tang

      • Tang Taizong

        • 2nd Tang emperor, a ruthless but extremely competent ruler

        • China enjoyed an era of unusual stability and prosperity

    • Extensive networks of transportation and communications

    • Adopted the equal-field system

    • Bureaucracy of merit

      • Recruited government officials through civil service examinations

      • Career bureaucrats relied on central government, loyal to the dynasty

      • Restored Confucianism as state ideology, training for bureaucrats

    • Foreign relations

      • Political theory: China was the Middle Kingdom, or the center of civilization

      • Tributary system became diplomatic policy

    • Tang decline

      • Casual and careless leadership led to dynastic crisis

      • Rebellion of An Lushan in 755, weakened the dynasty

      • The Uighurs became de facto rulers

      • The equal-field system deteriorated

      • A large scale peasant rebellion led by Huang Chao lasted from 875 to 884

      • Regional commanders gained power, beyond control of the emperor

      • The last Tang emperor abdicated his throne in 907


    Tang china

    TANG CHINA


    Tang art

    TANG ART


    Song dynasty 960 1279 c e

    SONG DYNASTY (960-1279 C.E.)

    • Song Taizu

      • Reigned 960-976 C.E.

      • Founder of the Song dynasty

    • Song weaknesses

      • Song never had military, diplomatic strength of Sui, Tang

      • Financial problems

        • Enormous bureaucracy with high salary devoured surplus

        • Forced to pay large tribute to nomads to avoid war

      • Military problems

        • Civil bureaucrats in charge of military forces

        • Military was largely foot soldiers at war with cavalry nomads

      • External pressures

        • Semi-nomadic Khitan, nomadic Jurchen attacked in north

        • Constant drain on treasury to pay tribute to nomads

      • The Song moved to the south, ruled south China until 1279

        • Nomads invaded, overran northern Song lands

        • Song retreated to the South along Yangtze, moved capital

        • After defeat, constantly forced to pay tribute


    The song world northern and southern dynasties

    THE SONG WORLDNORTHERN AND SOUTHERNDYNASTIES


    The song artistic world

    THE SONG ARTISTIC WORLD


    Patriarchal society

    PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY

    • Developments reinforced patriarchal society

      • Chinese reaction to foreign ideas

        • Reaction to Buddhist’s gender equality

        • Neo-Confucianism emphasized patriarchy

        • Ancestor worship revived

      • Preserving of family

      • Family wealth became paramount

    • Results

      • Tightening of patriarchal structure

      • Reinforcing of male domination

    • Foot binding gained popularity during the Song

      • Emphasized dependence of women on men, home

        • Wealthy, aristocrats could afford practice, hire servants to do work

        • Feet of women broken, reformed around stilts

        • Women could not walk without pain but had to shuffle

        • Forced women to remain at home, dependent on others

      • Male sense of beauty at women’s expense

    • Poor, peasant women not subject to footbinding

      • Women had to work with men to support family

      • Men could not afford to have women at home, idle


    Technology industry

    TECHNOLOGY & INDUSTRY

    • Porcelain

      • High quality porcelain since the Tang, known as chinaware

      • Technology diffused to other societies, especially to Abbasid Arabia

      • Exported vast quantities to southeast Asia, India, Persia, and Africa

    • Metallurgy

      • Improvement: used coke instead of coal in furnaces to make iron, steel

      • Iron production increased tenfold between the early 9th and 12th century

    • Gunpowder

      • Discovered by Daoist alchemists during the Tang

      • Bamboo "fire lances," a kind of flame thrower, and primitive bombs

      • Gunpowder chemistry diffused throughout Eurasia

    • Printing

      • Became common during the Tang

      • From block-printing to movable type

      • Books became widespread

    • Naval technology

      • "South-pointing needle" - the magnetic compass

      • Double hulled junks with rudder, water-tight compartments


    Song life

    SONG LIFE


    Yuan dynasty

    Yuan Dynasty

    • Khubilai Khan rules Yuan Dynasty in China

      • Chinggis Khan's grandson, consolidated Mongol rule in China

      • Conquest of southern China

        • Song Dynasty fell in 1276, Yuan Dynasty founded in 1279

        • Unsuccessful conquests of Vietnam, Burma, Java, and Japan

      • Mongol rule in China

        • New hierarchy: Mongol and allies; northern Chinese; Southern Chinese

        • Central administration reserved for Mongols, allies

        • Brought foreign administrators into China and put them in charge

        • Dismissed Confucian scholars; dismantled civil service examination

        • Favored merchants, cities, peasants over Chinese elites

      • Mongol Social Policies

        • Would not allow Mongols to settle in China nor Chinese in Mongolia

        • Outlawed intermarriage between Mongols and Chinese

        • Promoted Buddhism, supported Daoists, Muslims, and Christians

        • Forbade Chinese from learning the Mongol language

        • Mongol ruling elite adopted Lamaist Buddhism of Tibet

        • Mongol women refused to adopt Chinese customs, retained influential status

      • Mongol armies may also have transmitted the plague infection


    Dynasties from 1750 thru 1900 s

    Dynasties from 1750 thru 1900’s


    The ming dyansty

    THE MING DYANSTY

    • Ming government (1368-1644)

      • Drove the Mongols out of China

        • Constantly faced threats of new nomad invasions

        • Rebuilt Great Wall to prevent northern invasions

      • Centralized government control

        • Restored Chinese cultural traditions

        • Restored Confucian bureaucracy, civil service examinations

        • Eunuchs given impressive role in Forbidden City as bureaucrats

      • Ming attempted to recreate the past, not improve upon it

      • Moved capital to Beijing

        • Built Forbidden City for emperor, bureaucrats

        • City was closer to danger of north

        • Extended Grand Canal to the north to bring food to city

    • Ming decline

      • Centralized government ran poorly under weak emperors

      • Weak emperors isolated by eunuchs, advisors

      • Public works fell into disrepair

      • Coastal cities, trade disrupted by pirates, 1520 – 1560

      • Government corruption and inefficiency

        • Caused by powerful eunuchs

        • Overshadowed by inability of bureaucrats to reform, innovate

      • Famines and peasant rebellions: 1630s and 1640s

      • Rebellion by army units opens door to nomadic invasion

      • Nomadic Manchu invaders led to final Ming collapse, 1644


    The qing dyansty

    THE QING DYANSTY

    • Manchus (1644-1911)

      • Nomadic invaders

        • Originated in Manchuria

        • Last of the steppe invaders, dynasties

        • Overwhelmed Chinese forces

        • Proclaimed Qing dynasty

        • Originally pastoral nomads

        • Military force called banner armies

        • Captured Mongolia first, then China

      • Remained an isolated ethnic elite

        • Forbade intermarriage with Chinese

        • Forbade Chinese immigration to Manchuria, Mongolia

        • Permitted Confucian scholars to run government

        • Maintained Confucian system

    • Emperor Kangxi (1661-1722)

      • Confucian scholar; effective, enlightened ruler

      • Conquered Taiwan

      • Extended control to Central Asia, Tibet, Sinkjiang

    • Emperor Qianlong (1736-1795)

      • A sophisticated and learned ruler, poet, and artist

      • Vietnam, Burma, Nepal made vassal states of China

      • China was peaceful, prosperous, and powerful


    The patriarchal system

    THE PATRIARCHAL SYSTEM

    • Ming restored social system; Qing maintained traditions

    • Basic unit of Chinese society

      • Remained the family

      • Highest value, filial piety

      • Family mirrored state-individual relations

      • Confucian duties of loyalty, reciprocity

        • Children to parents

        • Subjects to the emperor

        • Wife to husband (women to men)

        • Younger to elder

      • Important functions of clan, extended families

        • Justice, government administered through extended families

        • Reward, punishment effected all

    • Gender relations

      • Strict patriarchal control over all females

      • Parents preferred boys over girls

      • Marriage was to continue male line

      • Female infanticide; widows encouraged to commit suicide

      • Footbinding of young girls increased

      • Lowest status person in family was a young bride


    Tradition new cultural influences

    TRADITION & NEW CULTURAL INFLUENCES

    • Neo-Confucianism

      • Confucianism

        • Education, traditions supported by Min and Qing emperors

          • Hanlin Academy in Beijing, provincial schools

          • Prepared students for civil service exams

          • Blended with Buddhism, Daoism to produce a Chinese synthesis

    • Christianity comes to China

      • Nestorian Christians not unknown in China, but had little influence

      • Portuguese brought Catholicism to China, courts

        • Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), an Italian Jesuit in the Ming court

          • A learned man who mastered written and oral Chinese

          • Impressed Chinese with European science and mathematics

          • Popular mechanical devices: glass prisms, harpsichords, clocks

        • Confucianism and Christianity

          • Jesuits respectful of Chinese tradition, but won few converts

          • Chinese had problems with exclusivity of Christianity

          • Franciscan, Dominican missionaries criticized Jesuits' tolerance

          • When pope upheld critics, Emperor Kangxi denounced Christianity

          • Jesuits

            • An important bridge between Chinese and western cultures

            • Introducing each to the achievements of the other


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