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Ecology Introduction. Chapter 18. Ecology. the study of the interdependence of living organisms the interdisciplinary scientific study of the distributions, abundance and relations of organisms and their interactions with the environment. Biological levels of organization.

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ecology
Ecology
  • the study of the interdependence of living organisms
  • the interdisciplinary scientific study of the distributions, abundance and relations of organisms and their interactions with the environment
slide4

Sponge Bob Ecology?

Ecosystem

Organism

Population

Community

slide5

"It is an obvious truth, which has been taken notice of by many writers,  that population must always be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence; but no writer that the Author recollects has  inquired particularly into the means by which this level is effected..."  -- Thomas Malthus, 1798

interdependence
Interdependence
  • All living organisms interact with other living organisms
parts of an ecosystem
Parts of an Ecosystem
  • Biotic factors
    • Living things that affect the organisms
  • Abiotic factors
    • Non-living things that affect the organisms
  • Biotic and abiotic factors are interdependent
the niche
The Niche
  • A niche is a way of life
  • Includes all aspects of lifestyle
    • Range of tolerable conditions
    • Means of acquiring resources
    • Number of offspring
    • Interactions with environment
    • Time of day of activity
    • And on and on and on and …..
changing environments
Changing Environments
  • Tolerance curve
    • Set of boundaries that organisms require for survival
acclimation
Acclimation
  • Tolerance curves can be affected
    • Acclimation
    • Homeostasis
surviving outside the tolerance zone
Surviving Outside the Tolerance Zone
  • Escape
    • Migration
    • Hibernation
niche differences
Niche differences
  • Specialists
    • Have very narrow niches and tend to specialize on utilizing a resource other organisms are unable to use.
niche differences1
Niche differences
  • Generalists
    • Have broad niches and can tolerate a wide range of conditions
producers
Producers
  • Photosynthesis
  • Chemosynthesis
measuring productivity
Measuring productivity
  • Biomass
    • Mass of organic material produced in an ecosystem
  • Gross primary productivity (GPP)
    • Rate at which producers capture solar energy and produce organic material
  • Net primary productivity (NPP)
    • Rate at which biomass accumulates
    • Kcal/m2/yr

= GPP– rate of respiration in producers

consumers
Consumers
  • Herbivores- eat producers
  • Carnivores- eat consumers
  • Omnivores- eat producers and consumers
  • Detritivores- eat dead stuff or excrement
    • Decomposers- break down complex organic material
energy flow
Energy Flow
  • Trophic levels
    • Indicates the number of energy transfers
  • Only 10% of the energy in one level is available to the next
food webs
Food Webs
  • Interweaving diagram of food chains
slide21

owl

stoat

fox

rat

rabbit

beetle

energy and nutrient flow
Energy and Nutrient Flow

Producers

Consumers

Energy

Nutrients

Inorganic Nutrients

Decomposers

energy and nutrient flow1
Energy and Nutrient Flow

Producers

Consumers

Energy

Nutrients

Inorganic Nutrients

Decomposers

matter does cycle
Matter Does Cycle
  • Most important
    • Water
    • Carbon
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorous
    • Sulfur
ad