Pathophysiology. ZOOL 3143. Dr. Diane M. Gilmore, O.D. LSE 415 680-8083 [email protected] Web site: www.clt.astate.edu/mgilmore. Office hours:. Monday and Tuesday 1 - 2 p.m. Wednesday Noon - 2 p.m. and 3-4 p.m. And by appointment.
Lecture Text: Essentials of Pathophysiology Concepts of Altered Health States,2nd ed.,
by Carol Mattson Porth.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pub.
It will blow up in your face!
Turn off pagers and cell phones !
No tobacco use of any kind
Be considerate of others:
Take out what you bring in.
Talk to me, NOT your neighbor!
Do not ask for grades over the
phone or internet.
“pop” quizzes and possibly seminars
A = 450 - 500 points
B = 400 - 449 points
C = 350 - 399 points
D = 300 - 349 points
F = less than 300 pointsFinal exam Tuesday, Dec. 11 at 12:30p.m.
Disease – loss of homeostasis, or when physical or mental capacities cannot be fully utilized (interuption, cessation or disorder in the function of an organ or system).
Etiology = cause of the disease
When the etiology is unknown, the disease is said to be idiopathic.
Clinical manifestations – indications that the person is sick
Symptoms – unobservable effects of a disease reported by the patient
Signs – observable or measurable traits
Syndrome - a characteristic combination of signs and symptoms associated with a particular disease.
Pathogenesis - sequence of events in the of development of a disease
Sequelae – lesions or impairments resulting from a disease
Acute conditions – rapid onset, develop quickly, usually of short duration
Chronic conditions – longer duration
onset may be sudden or insidious
Local – confined to one area of the body
Systemic – widely distributed throughout the body
Within an organ damage can be:
Focal if there are only one or more distinct sites of damage
Diffuse if the damage is uniformly distributed
Diagnosis – identification of the specific disease
Therapy – the treatment of the disease to either effect a cure or reduce the patient’s signs and symptoms
Prognosis – prediction of a disease’s outcome
Composed of lipid molecules in bilayer
Phospholipids have hydrophobic tail
Phospholipids have hydrophilic heads
Also contains embedded proteins
proteins are important for cell-cell
receptors for hormones
also important for metabolic
processes inside the cell:
Cytosol – aqueous gel-like medium
Important metabolic processes occur here
Organelles – membrane bound structures
Membranes provide compartments for
separation of chemical reactions
“sacs” that hold molecules within a cell
lysosomes –digestive enzymes
molecules to be exported
Made up of cells with common function
Four major tissue types:
covering and lining
interacts with the body’s environment
Important to structure , support and protection
3. Nervous tissue
Made up of neurons and supporting (glial) cells
receives info from outside (or inside) the body
acts on the information through muscles, glands,
We'll see this in heart, kidney (and others) w/ pathology
NOT due to increased cell volume or fluid
Rather, due to increased protein synthesis within the cell, or decreased protein breakdown
Result is increased protein in organelles
Hyperplasia = increase in cell number
Due to increased cell division
Uterus and breast tissue
Parathyroid gland in kidney failure
Liver (compensatory hyperplasia)
Deficiencies: shape or organization
Deficiency in oxygen most important
Hypoxia = deficiency in oxygen at cell shape or organization
Due to :
Decreased oxygen in air
Decreased hemoglobin or
decreased oxygen transported to cells
Diseases of the respiratory and/or
Important to cell because of shape or organization
oxidative phosphorylation, which results
in the production of ATP
Oxidative: need oxygen to produce ATP
ATP: needed by cell for metabolism, cell life
Ischemia shape or organization is inadequate blood supply to a cell or tissue.
Ischemia can cause hypoxia.
Intoxication (or introduction of toxins into the cell) shape or organization
Effect on cell depends on toxin and on cell
Lead -- injures nervous system
CO -- deprives body of oxygen
Ethanol -- effects central nervous system
Free radicals shape or organization :
uncharged atom or group of atoms with an
Formed by radiation, redox reactions, chemicals
Atom is unstable
needs to gain or lose an electron
can alter chemical bonds in proteins,
lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids
can cause chain reaction in cell