The nervous system
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The Nervous System. 2003-2004. Overview. The Nervous System controls and coordinates all the functions of the body. The Nervous System consists of two main sub-divisions: Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

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The Nervous System

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The nervous system

The Nervous System

2003-2004


Overview

Overview

  • The Nervous System controls and coordinates all the functions of the body.

  • The Nervous System consists of two main sub-divisions:

    • Central Nervous System (CNS)

    • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

  • The Peripheral Nervous System is divided into two sub-divisions:

    • Somatic- voluntary

    • Autonomic- involuntary

2003-2004


The nervous system

2003-2004

http://inside.salve.edu/walsh/cns_pns.jpg


Structure and function of the neuron

Structure and Function of the Neuron

  • Neuron is the scientific name for a Nerve Cell.

  • Neurons consist of 3 basic structures:

    • Cyton, or cell body.

    • Dendrites- receive messages, impulses, and send them to the cell body.

    • Axons- send messages away from the cell body.

  • Nerve impulses travel from one neuron to another across synapses, or spaces in between the cells.

  • The “jumping across” the synapse is facilitated (helped) by chemicals called Neurotransmitters.

2003-2004


Parts of the neuron

Parts of the Neuron

  • Dendrites– Branched parts of a neuron that receive impulses from other neurons.

  • Cyton- Contains cytoplasm and the nucleus. Impulses pass through here to the axon.

  • Axon- Single long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body.

  • A Neuron

2003-2004


The nervous system

2003-2004


Synapse

Synapse

Junction between nerve cells

  • 1st cell releases chemical to trigger next cell

  • where drugs affect nervous system

synapse

2003-2004


Types of neurons

Types of Neurons

Neurons can also be classified by the direction that they send information:

・Sensory (or afferent) neurons: send information from sensory receptors (e.g., in skin, eyes, nose, tongue, ears) TOWARD the central nervous system.

・Motor (or efferent) neurons: send information AWAY from the central nervous system to muscles or glands.

・Interneurons: send information BETWEEN sensory neurons and motor neurons. Most interneurons are located in the central nervous system.

2003-2004


Reflexes

Reflexes

  • Stimulus- a change in the environment.

  • Response/Reaction- how the body reacts to a stimulus.

  • ReflexArc- the pathway that an impulse follows to illicit a response to a stimulus.

2003-2004


Parts of the central nervous system

Parts of the Central Nervous System

  • Brain

  • Spinal cord

2003-2004


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