The Jacksonian Era. AP History I. An Expanding Nation with a Significant Problem. Most Americans were pleased by the nation’s growth and physical expansion in an era a great nationalism. There was, however, one big problem. Missouri Controversy.
AP History I
Legitimate 5-way race exposed divisions within Jeffersonian Republican Party.
Jackson got most popular and electoral votes, but no one got a majority.
John Qunicy Adams, with the critical support of Henry Clay, won the election in the House of Representatives.
JQA made Clay Secretary of State.
Jackson’s supporters angrily accused Adams of stealing the election in a “corrupt bargain” with Clay.
The Jacksonians formed the Democratic Party in opposition to JQA and the National Republicans.
“A man who quotes law, or a man who makes law?”
-- Jackson campaign slogan
Slave owner – reportedly wagered them on horse races
“We are not a nation but a Union, a confederacy of equal and sovereign states.”
-- John C. Calhoun
It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes. Distinctions in society will always exist under every just government. Equality of talents, of education, or of wealth can not be produced by human institutions. In the full enjoyment of the gifts of Heaven and the fruits of superior industry, economy, and virtue, every man is equally entitled to protection by law; but when the laws undertake to add to these natural and just advantages artificial distinctions, to grant titles, gratuities, and exclusive privileges, to make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of society-the farmers, mechanics, and laborers-who have neither the time nor the means of securing like favors to themselves, have a right to complain of the injustice of their Government. There are no necessary evils in government. Its evils exist only in its abuses. If it would confine itself to equal protection, and as Heaven does its rains, shower its favors alike on the high and the low, the rich and the poor, it would be an unqualified blessing.
What did Jackson do?
What effects did Jackson’s action have?
“Oh, if I live to get these robes of office off me, I will bring the rascal to a dear account!”
The act provided for the removal of Indians from land that could be used to expand white settlements.
In a speech defending the act, Jackson said:
“[It] will separate the Indian from immediate contact with settlements of whites, enable them to pursue happiness in their own way and under their own rude institutions, will retard the progress of decay, which is lessening their numbers, and perhaps cause them gradually, under the protection of the government and through the influence of good counsel, to cast off their savage habits and become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community.”
Who was blamed?
How is Harrison being presented? What does the symbolism mean?
What message does this poster convey?
What does “individualism” mean to you?
I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived.
-- from Walden, 1854
Frederic Church, Twilight in the Wilderness
Asher Durand, Kindred Spirits
What effects might the philosophy of collective salvation have?
How unusual were utopian communities?
Why did so many develop in the Antebellum era?
Why did they develop in America?
“I am come to this country to introduce an entire new system of society; to change it from an ignorant, selfish system to an enlightened social system which shall gradually unite all interests into one and remove all causes for contest between individuals.”
Sisters of Charity Philosophy(1812)
founded in Maryland
Mother Elizabeth Seton first US saint
Founded by former Brook Farm resident Isaac Hecker
First American order of priests
Rejection of material wealthCatholic Monastic Communities:Parallels to Protestant and Secular Utopian Communities
The Sisters of Ursula convent and girls’ school in Somerville, MA was burned down by a mob of 2000 Protestant Bostonians in 1834. Of the 13 men charged with the crime, 12 were acquitted and the 13th was pardoned by the governor.
Who would be inclined to support the temperance movement?
“I tell what I have seen!”
-- immediate, uncompensated emancipation
-- gradual, possibly compensated emancipation
-- gradual emancipation accompanied by colonization of freed slaves in Africa
-- American Colonization Society (1816)
“I am in earnest. I will not equivocate – AND I WILL BE HEARD!”
Former slave Movements in Antebellum America?
Taught to read and write illegally by his Maryland master
Foremost black leader, abolitionist of his time
Broke from Garrison’s movement when not afforded equal status
Understood, unlike many white abolitionists, that abolition did not necessarily equal freedom
Advocated political action and possibly rebellion in addition to moral suasionFrederick Douglass
After creating controversy by being elected to a previously all-male committee at the American Anti-Slavery Society’s 1840 convention, Kelley became a leading advocate for women’s rights and presided over the National Women’s Rights Convention held in Worcester in 1850.
American women “have good cause to be grateful to the slave, for in striving to strike his iron off, we found most surely that we were manacled ourselves.”