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The Jacksonian Era. AP History I. An Expanding Nation with a Significant Problem. Most Americans were pleased by the nation’s growth and physical expansion in an era a great nationalism. There was, however, one big problem. Missouri Controversy.

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the jacksonian era

The Jacksonian Era

AP History I

an expanding nation with a significant problem
An Expanding Nation with a Significant Problem
  • Most Americans were pleased by the nation’s growth and physical expansion in an era a great nationalism.
  • There was, however, one big problem . . .
missouri controversy
Missouri Controversy
  • In 1819, Missouri requested admittance into the union.
  • NY Congressman James Tallmage moved that slavery be limited and, eventually, outlawed in Missouri.
  • A debate raged in Congress.
missouri compromise of 1820
Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • Missouri admitted as a slave state.
  • Maine admitted as a free state.
  • 36 30’ Line
    • No new slave states above
    • New states could have slavery below
john qunicy adams and improvement
John Qunicy Adams and “Improvement”
  • As president, the professorial Adams pursued a nationalist program to expand the federal governments contributions to economic development.
  • Embraced “American System”
  • Encouraged education, construction of lighthouses, and even an astronomical observatory
election of 1824
Election of 1824

Legitimate 5-way race exposed divisions within Jeffersonian Republican Party.

Jackson got most popular and electoral votes, but no one got a majority.

John Qunicy Adams, with the critical support of Henry Clay, won the election in the House of Representatives.

JQA made Clay Secretary of State.

a corrupt bargain
A Corrupt Bargain?

Jackson’s supporters angrily accused Adams of stealing the election in a “corrupt bargain” with Clay.

The Jacksonians formed the Democratic Party in opposition to JQA and the National Republicans.

1828 election
1828 Election
  • JQA had a difficult, unpopular presidency, opposed by Jacksonian Democrats in Congress at every turn
  • The JQA-Jackson match-up was a study in contrasts
    • Old v. new
    • Intellectual v. emotional
    • Aristocracy v. commoners

“A man who quotes law, or a man who makes law?”

-- Jackson campaign slogan

andrew jackson the person
Andrew Jackson the Person
  • Orphaned at a young age
  • A “rollicking, cock-fighting” youth
  • War of 1812 hero – New Orleans
  • Celebrated Indian fighter
  • Adopted Creek boy whose parents had been massacred by his own forces
  • Forced Spanish to give up Florida in 1819
  • Dueler
  • Rose from humble beginnings to become a successful Tennessee lawyer

Slave owner – reportedly wagered them on horse races

andrew jackson the politician
Andrew Jackson the Politician
  • democratic philosophy – authoritarian style
  • Demanded strict loyalty from his advisors
  • Took political battles personally
    • Refused to pay customary courtesy call on outgoing President J. Q. Adams(JQA, in turn, declined to attend Jackson’s inauguration)
  • Tended to identify his own will with the will of the people – truly saw himself as the defender of the “common man”
the little magician
The Little Magician
  • Instrumental in both Jackson’s election and presidency
  • Devised strategy to help Jackson appeal to Northerners and thereby temper sectionalism in 1828 election
      • Tariff of 1828
  • Engineered resolution of “Peggy Eaton Affair” and became Jackson’s heir-apparent
jacksonian democracy
“Jacksonian Democracy”
  • Popular campaigning
  • Party politics
  • Emotional appeal

WHY?

  • Changes in electorate (those who vote)
    • Universal white male suffrage
  • Jackson appealed to the average farmer and the working class
jackson s inauguration
Jackson’s Inauguration
  • Jackson’s adoring supporters streamed into Washington to celebrate his inauguration.
  • A rowdy post-inauguration party at the White House gave further ammunition to Jackson’s detractors who looked down upon the “common” Jacksonian “rabble.”
the spoils system
The “Spoils System”
  • Name comes from the saying: “To the victor go the spoils.”
  • Jackson asserted the right to replace all current federal employees (bureaucrats) after taking office.
  • What reasoning did he give?
  • Could he have had an ulterior motive?
peggy eaton affair
Peggy Eaton Affair

Rachel Jackson

Peggy Eaton

jacksonian principles
Jacksonian Principles
  • Majority rule
  • States’ rights
  • Defense of common people against “monied aristocracy”
vice president john c calhoun
Vice President John C. Calhoun
  • A proud South Carolinian
  • Published Exposition and Protest, which supported the Doctrine of Nullification, in 1828

“We are not a nation but a Union, a confederacy of equal and sovereign states.”

-- John C. Calhoun

webster hayne debate 1830
Webster – Hayne Debate (1830)
  • The centerpiece of a growing national debate over the concept of nullification
  • Sen. Daniel Webster (MA) took on Sen. Robert Hayne (SC) in an extended debate on the US Senate floor.
  • Nothing was settled, but the national debate over states’ rights v. federal power intensified.
nullification crisis 1832
Nullification Crisis (1832)
  • Following the doctrine of nullification supported by Calhoun, South Carolina “nullified” the hated Tariff of 1828 (“Tariff of Abominations”)
  • Jackson’s Dilemma:
    • Majority rule v. states’ rights
  • SC threatened secession
  • Jackson secured passage of a Force Bill providing for federal enforcement of the tariff.
  • A compromise was engineered and SC backed down.
second national bank
Second National Bank
  • Jackson saw the bank as serving the interests of the “monied aristocracy.”
  • He also saw it as unconstitutional.
bank war national bank recharter battle
“Bank War”: National Bank Recharter Battle
  • Congressional Whigs, led by Clay and Webster, passed a bill to recharter the national bank in 1832.
  • Whigs hoped to make Jackson’s opposition to the bank a political issue in the 1832 election.
  • Jackson vetoed the National Bank recharter bill.
  • Jackson vetoed a total of 12 bills during his presidency. All previous presidents combined had vetoed just 9.

Nicholas Biddle

jackson s national bank veto message
Jackson’s National Bank Veto Message

It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes. Distinctions in society will always exist under every just government. Equality of talents, of education, or of wealth can not be produced by human institutions. In the full enjoyment of the gifts of Heaven and the fruits of superior industry, economy, and virtue, every man is equally entitled to protection by law; but when the laws undertake to add to these natural and just advantages artificial distinctions, to grant titles, gratuities, and exclusive privileges, to make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of society-the farmers, mechanics, and laborers-who have neither the time nor the means of securing like favors to themselves, have a right to complain of the injustice of their Government. There are no necessary evils in government. Its evils exist only in its abuses. If it would confine itself to equal protection, and as Heaven does its rains, shower its favors alike on the high and the low, the rich and the poor, it would be an unqualified blessing.

the bank war continues
The “Bank War” Continues
  • Jackson’s veto of the bank recharter bill didn’t put the issue to rest
  • The old charter didn’t run out until 1836.

What did Jackson do?

  • Declaring “the bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it,”Jackson withdrew the federal govt’s money from the bank.

What effects did Jackson’s action have?

congress censure of president jackson
Congress’ Censure of President Jackson
  • The Whig-led Congress probably wanted to impeach Jackson, but he was too popular.
  • Instead, Henry Clay introduced a censure resolution, which passed the Senate by a vote of 26-20.
  • It said Jackson had “assumed upon himself power not conferred by the Constitution and laws.”
slide27

“Oh, if I live to get these robes of office off me, I will bring the rascal to a dear account!”

--Andrew Jackson

jacksonian indian policy
Jacksonian Indian Policy
  • Jackson, of course, had a history with Indians.
  • When the State of Georgia tried to evict the Indians of the Cherokee nation, therefore, Jackson’s reaction was predictable.
  • The Cherokee fought back, however . . .
indian removal act 1830
Indian Removal Act (1830)

The act provided for the removal of Indians from land that could be used to expand white settlements.

In a speech defending the act, Jackson said:

“[It] will separate the Indian from immediate contact with settlements of whites, enable them to pursue happiness in their own way and under their own rude institutions, will retard the progress of decay, which is lessening their numbers, and perhaps cause them gradually, under the protection of the government and through the influence of good counsel, to cast off their savage habits and become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community.”

worcester v georgia 1834
Worcester v. Georgia (1834)
  • Case involved the arrest of missionary Samuel Worcester for violating a GA law against whites living among Indians.
  • The US Supreme Court ruled that the State of GA had no jurisdiction over the independent Cherokee Nation.
the ongoing cherokee controversy
The Ongoing Cherokee Controversy
  • The USSC’s ruling in Worcester v. Georgia appeared to mean that the Cherokee could not legally be removed since they were an independent nation.
  • How did Jackson respond?
jackson s specie circular 1836
Jackson’s Specie Circular (1836)
  • After Jackson “killed” the National Bank, smaller banks (no longer being regulated by the National Bank) printed excessive amounts of paper money.
  • Serious inflation problem resulted
  • Jackson’s “Specie Circular” required payment for public lands to be in hard currency only.
  • What effect did the Specie Circular have?
panic of 1837
Panic of 1837
  • The Specie Circular resulted in Americans turning in their paper money for hard currency.
  • Banks failed when the demand became too great.
  • The worst economic collapse in the country’s short history ensued.
  • Unemployment rose to near 50% in some areas.

Who was blamed?

martin van buren
Martin van Buren
  • New Yorker and Jackson’s hand-picked successor
  • popularly referred to as Martin “van Ruin” as Panic of 1837 intensified
second two party system
Second Two-party System
  • DEMOCRATS – limited government
    • Jacksonians
    • dominated much of South and West
    • pro-slavery
    • suspicious of “wealthy elite”
    • anti-moralist
    • states’ rights advocates
second two party system1
Second Two-party System
  • WHIGS – activist government
    • most popular in Northeast
    • more supportive of federal govt. measures designed to encourage economic growth like the national bank and internal improvements (Henry Clay’s American System)
    • moralism (“Conscience Whigs” supported moral reforms like temperance and anti-slavery measures.)
election of 1840
Election of 1840
  • Van Buren v. William Henry Harrison
  • Indian-war-hero Harrison (“Old Tippecanoe”), with his “Log Cabin and Hard Cider” campaign, was able to beat the Jacksonian Democrats at their own game.
harrison campaign poster
Harrison Campaign Poster

How is Harrison being presented? What does the symbolism mean?

harrison campaign poster1
Harrison Campaign Poster

What message does this poster convey?

transcendentalism
Transcendentalism
  • An American philosophical movement
  • led by Ralph Waldo Emerson
  • To find truth, look inward and to nature.
  • Emphasis on the significance and the personal growth of the individual (but not in a selfish or materialistic sense)
  • Can be seen as a reaction against the man-made shallowness of the new industrial world.

What does “individualism” mean to you?

henry david thoreau
Henry David Thoreau
  • Follower/student/houseguest of Emerson
  • Sought to put Emerson’s philosophy into action
  • Walden, published in 1854
henry david thoreau1
Henry David Thoreau

I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived.

-- from Walden, 1854

hudson river school
Hudson River School

Thomas Cole

  • A “school” of American artists who painted the American landscape
  • Influenced by Transcendentalism
hudson river school1
Hudson River School

Frederic Church, Twilight in the Wilderness

Frederic Church,

Niagara Falls

Asher Durand, Kindred Spirits

emerson s american scholar
Emerson’s “American Scholar”
  • How does Emerson view Europe?
  • How does he view America?
  • What, to Emerson, is “freedom”?
  • What act of scholarly bravery or “manliness” does Emerson urge American intellectuals to perform?
second great awakening
Second Great Awakening
  • C. 1840
  • Charles G. Finney, Rochester Revival
  • Collective Salvation
    • save all of society in order to save self
  • Milennialism
    • society’s ills must be cured to pave the way for second coming of Christ

What effects might the philosophy of collective salvation have?

charles grandison finney and the second great awakening philosophy
Charles Grandison Finney and the Second Great Awakening Philosophy
  • What, according to Finney, is the primary trait of a sinner? What is the primary trait of a faithful person?
  • Why does Finney use the language of democracy to make his religious points?
  • How would you expect a follower of Finney to affect American politics and government?
utopian communities
Utopian Communities

How unusual were utopian communities?

Why did so many develop in the Antebellum era?

Why did they develop in America?

  • The reformist impulse of the Second Great Awakening era spawned a variety of Utopian communities.
  • These communities sought, each in their own way, to establish an ideal society.
brook farm
Brook Farm
  • Modern-day West Roxbury/Jamaica Plain, MA
  • transcendentalist community founded by George Ripley
  • agriculture, literature, gender equality
  • shunned capitalist profit
new harmony in
New Harmony, IN
  • founded by Scottish immigrant industrialist Robert Owen
  • gender equality
    • Owen denounced marriage
  • education for all
  • Utopian socialism - everyone paid equally

“I am come to this country to introduce an entire new system of society; to change it from an ignorant, selfish system to an enlightened social system which shall gradually unite all interests into one and remove all causes for contest between individuals.”

fruitlands
Fruitlands
  • Harvard, MA
  • transcendentalist commune founded by Bronson Alcott
  • rejection of modern industrial society
  • no use of products derived from animals or slave labor
  • lasted seven months
hopedale ma
Hopedale, MA
  • Industrial commune
  • early Christian socialist community
  • under the direction of Adin Ballou
oneida community
Oneida Community
  • Putney, VT then Oneida, NY
  • “Perfectionism”
  • John Humphrey Noyes (“Father Noyes”)
  • communal living and child-rearing
  • Planned reproduction and birth control
  • “complex marriage”
  • silverware
shakers
Shakers
  • Originally founded in England
  • Mother Ann Lee believed to be female Christ
  • numerous isolated communities, mostly in NE
  • celibacy, separation of men and women
  • gender equality
catholic monastic communities parallels to protestant and secular utopian communities
Sisters of Charity(1812)

founded in Maryland

Mother Elizabeth Seton first US saint

Paulist Fathers

Founded by former Brook Farm resident Isaac Hecker

First American order of priests

Celibacy

Self-discipline

Rejection of material wealth

Catholic Monastic Communities:Parallels to Protestant and Secular Utopian Communities
the catholic church in america
The Catholic Church in America
  • Could a Church run dictatorially succeed in democratic America?
  • Bishop John Carroll of Baltimore, the first Roman Catholic bishop in the US, was a descendant of a signer of the Declaration of Independence.
    • He was elected by the Baltimore clergy and embraced republican principles and freedom of religion
catholicism in antebellum america
Catholicism in Antebellum America
  • Only major non-millennialist Christian sect in US
  • Church became increasingly “European” with increased Catholic immigration
  • Considered foreign and a threat to American democracy/exceptionalism by many Protestant Americans

The Sisters of Ursula convent and girls’ school in Somerville, MA was burned down by a mob of 2000 Protestant Bostonians in 1834. Of the 13 men charged with the crime, 12 were acquitted and the 13th was pardoned by the governor.

millerites
Millerites
  • Ardent premillennialists
  • William Miller calculated date for Second Coming
  • . . . then recalculated
  • Widespread following
  • Modern-day Seventh-Day Adventists trace their origins to Millerites
mormons
Mormons
  • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
  • founded by Joseph Smith in upstate NY
  • Smith discovered Book of Mormon (a new Christian gospel) written on golden tablets buried on his farm.
mormons1
Mormons
  • Mormons initially believed in polygamy
  • They were widely persecuted.
  • Smith was murdered by a mob in the Mormon community of Nauvoo, IL.
  • Brigham Young led the Mormons to the frontier territory of Utah to escape persecution.
what was the significance of millennial and utopian movements in antebellum america
What was the significance of millennial and Utopian Movements in Antebellum America?
  • Underscored belief in American uniqueness/exceptionalism
  • Highlighted “experimental” nature of America and belief in infinite possibilities
temperance movement
Temperance Movement
  • Anti-alcohol movement
  • American Temperance Society (1826)
    • Alcoholism as a moral failing
  • Washington Temperance Society (1840)
    • Alcolholism as a disease
  • Moral suasion initially the most common tactic, but political action later became popular
  • Local Option Laws (1850s)
    • State laws forbidding sale/manufacture of alcohol
temperance movement1
Temperance Movement

Who would be inclined to support the temperance movement?

mental health reform
Mental Health Reform
  • In 1843, Dorothea Dix began a successful crusade for the humane treatment of the mentally ill.
  • The mentally ill were commonly imprisoned.
  • Dix’s led to the creation of special asylums for the care of the mentally ill.
  • Disciple of perfectionist Unitarian minister William Ellery Channing

“I tell what I have seen!”

prison reform
Prison Reform
  • The idea that prisoners could be reformed if dealt with properly became popular.
  • Solitary reflection on the Bible was encouraged.
  • The prison reform movement shared Dorothea Dix’ belief that good institutions could improve people.
workers labor movement
Workers’/Labor Movement
  • “Workingmen’s Parties” were political parties built around the concerns of working class people formed in many states in the 1820s and 1830s.
  • With the growth of industry, labor unions and strikes grew more widespread.
  • National Trades Union, 1834, was the first attempt at a nationwide labor union
anti slavery movement
Anti-Slavery Movement
  • Radical Abolitionists

-- immediate, uncompensated emancipation

  • Moderate Abolitionists

-- gradual, possibly compensated emancipation

  • Colonizationists

-- gradual emancipation accompanied by colonization of freed slaves in Africa

-- American Colonization Society (1816)

-- Liberia

william lloyd garrison
William Lloyd Garrison
  • Radical abolitionist from MA
  • Founded anti-slavery journal The Liberator
  • Moral suasion was principal tactic

“I am in earnest. I will not equivocate – AND I WILL BE HEARD!”

frederick douglass
Former slave

Taught to read and write illegally by his Maryland master

Foremost black leader, abolitionist of his time

Broke from Garrison’s movement when not afforded equal status

Understood, unlike many white abolitionists, that abolition did not necessarily equal freedom

Advocated political action and possibly rebellion in addition to moral suasion

Frederick Douglass
other anti slavery reformers
Other Anti-Slavery Reformers
  • David Walker – advocated slave rebellion in speeches and essays during 1840s
  • Martin Delany – advocated black nationalism, return to Africa
  • David Ruggles – protested segregation of transportation in Massachusetts in 1841
women s movement
Women’s Movement
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott traveled to the 1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention.

What happened?

abby kelley
Abby Kelley

After creating controversy by being elected to a previously all-male committee at the American Anti-Slavery Society’s 1840 convention, Kelley became a leading advocate for women’s rights and presided over the National Women’s Rights Convention held in Worcester in 1850.

American women “have good cause to be grateful to the slave, for in striving to strike his iron off, we found most surely that we were manacled ourselves.”

seneca falls convention 1848
Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
  • America’s first women’s rights convention
  • Organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
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