Bloodborne pathogens universal precautions and wound care
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Bloodborne Pathogens, Universal Precautions, and Wound Care. Because of the close physical contact that occurs through athletic participation, the potential of for spread of infectious disease is a potential danger. What are bloodborne pathogens?.

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Bloodborne Pathogens, Universal Precautions, and Wound Care

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Bloodborne Pathogens, Universal Precautions, and Wound Care


  • Because of the close physical contact that occurs through athletic participation, the potential of for spread of infectious disease is a potential danger.


What are bloodborne pathogens?

  • Bloodborne pathogens – are pathogenic microorganisms that can potentially cause disease.

  • Mode of transmission:

    • Human blood

    • Semen

    • Vaginal secretions

    • Cerebrospinal fluid

    • Synovial fluid


  • Two most significant pathogens

    • HBV

    • HIV


  • Other potential pathogens:

    • HCV

    • HDV

    • Syphilis

      HIV has been more widely addressed but HBV has a higher possibility for spreading.


  • HBV is stronger and more durable than HIV.

  • HBV can be spread more easily when compared to HIV also.


Hepatitis B Virus

  • Viral infection that results in swelling, soreness, and loss of normal function of the liver.


Signs of HBV

  • Flulike symptoms

  • Jaundice

  • Individual may exhibit no signs of infection.


Prevention of HBV

  • Good personal hygiene and avoiding high-risk activities.

  • HBV can survive for at least a seek in dried blood or on contaminated surfaces.

  • Avoiding contact with any infected surface or fluid.


  • Vaccine

    • Requires a series of three inoculations spread over a 6-month period.

  • 1991 OSHA mandated that vaccination against HBV must be made available by and employer at no cost to any individual who may be exposed to blood or other bodily fluids.


MRSA

  • Staphylococcus aureus, often called "staph" is a type of bacteria commonly found on the skin or in the nose of healthy people.

  • MRSA which stands for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus is staph that is resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as penicillins.


What types of infections does MRSA cause?

  • In the community, most MRSA infections are minor skin infections that may appear as sores or boils that often are red, swollen, painful, or have pus or other drainage.


  • These skin infections commonly occur either at sites of breaks in the skin such as cuts and abrasions,

  • areas of the body covered by hair (for example, the back of the neck, groin, buttock, armpit, or beard area of men).


How is MRSA Spread?

  • Like other causes of skin infections in athletes, MRSA is usually spread from person to person through:

  • Direct skin contact or contact with shared items or surfaces (e.g., towels, used bandages, weight-training equipment surfaces) that have touched a person's infection.


  • MRSA might spread more easily among athletes because they:

    • have repeated skin-to-skin contact

    • get breaks in the skin such as cuts and abrasions that if left uncovered allow staph and MRSA to enter and cause infection

    • share items and surfaces that come into direct skin contact

    • have difficulty staying clean


Dealing With Bloodborne Pathogens in Athletics

  • In general the chances of transmitting HIV among athletes is low.

  • There is minimal risk of on-field transmission of HIV from one player to another.

  • There have been no validated reports of HIV transmission in sports.


Universal Precautions In An Athletic Environment

  • The guidelines developed by OSHA were developed to protect the health care provider and the patient.

  • It is essential that every sports program develop and carry out a bloodborne pathogen exposure plan.

    • Counseling

    • Education

    • Volunteer testing

    • Management of bodily fluids


Preparing the Athlete

  • All open skin wounds and lesions must be covered with a dressing that is fixed in place.

    • Lessens chance of cross contamination.

    • Reduces the chances of the wound reopening.


When Bleeding Occurs

  • Aggressive treatment.

    • Removed from participation.

    • Return when it is deemed safe by the medical staff.

    • Uniforms.


Personal Precautions

  • Use of disposable non-latex gloves.

  • Disposable mouthpieces for resuscitation devices..

  • ONE –TIME USE NON-LATEX GLOVES MUST BE USED WHEN HANDLING ANY POTENTIALLY INFECTIOUS MATERIAL.

  • Removal of gloves.


Are Sutures Necessary?


  • Deeper lacerations, incisions, occasionally puncture wounds.

  • Should be put in as soon a possible, but certainly within a max of 12 hours following injury..

  • Steri-strips, butterfly bandages, derma-bond.


Signs Of Wound Infection


  • Classic signs:

    • Inflammation

    • Pain

    • Heat

    • Redness

    • Swelling

    • Disordered function

    • Pus

    • Fever


Tetanus

  • Bacterial infection that causes fever and convulsions.

    • Occurs most often with puncture wounds.


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