Slide1 l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 22

Session: 3 The four pronged approach to comprehensive prevention of HIV in infants and young children PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 95 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Session: 3 The four pronged approach to comprehensive prevention of HIV in infants and young children. Dr.Pushpalatha, Assistant Professor, Dept of Pediatrics, Vani Vilas Hospital, Bangalore.

Download Presentation

Session: 3 The four pronged approach to comprehensive prevention of HIV in infants and young children

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Slide1 l.jpg

Session: 3The four pronged approach to comprehensive prevention of HIV in infants and young children

Dr.Pushpalatha,

Assistant Professor,

Dept of Pediatrics,

Vani Vilas Hospital,

Bangalore.


Slide2 l.jpg

Although PPTCT Programs often focus on ARV prophylaxis, a comprehensive approach to the prevention of HIV infection in infants and young children consists of

4 elements


The four pronged approach l.jpg

The four-pronged approach

1

4

2

3


Slide4 l.jpg

1

Prevention of primary HIV infection

  • HIV will not be passed on to children in parents-to-be are not infected.

  • Decreasing the number of HIV infected mothers is the most effective way of reducing MTCT


Slide5 l.jpg

Prevention of primary HIV infection- strategies

  • Safe and responsible sexual behavior and practices – the ABC approach

    • A=abstinence

    • B=be faithful to one partner

    • C=condom use, correctly and consistently

Increasing new HIV infection-from husbands to wives.

Needs behavioural changes and education to safer sex practices.

Factors contributing to women’s vulnerability to HIV are

Poverty,lack of information,abuse,violence.

BCC –aim to change the risky behaviour


Slide6 l.jpg

PREVENTION OF PRIMARY HIV INFECTION

IN ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS

  • PROVIDE EARLY DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF STI’s

  • PROVIDE ACCESS TO CONDOMS

  • PROVIDE SUITABLE COUNSELLING FOR HIV NEGATIVE WOMEN

  • MAKE HIV TESTING AND COUNSELLING WIDELY AVAILABLE


The four pronged approach7 l.jpg

The four-pronged approach

1

4

2

3


Slide8 l.jpg

2

Prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV infected women

  • Women who know that they are HIV infected can avoid unintended pregnancies

  • Family planning counseling for such women and their partners is critical.

  • Providing safe and effective contraception and high quality reproductive health counseling contributes to informed decision making about pregnancy choices.


The four pronged approach9 l.jpg

The four-pronged approach

1

4

2

3


Slide10 l.jpg

Prevention of HIV transmission from HIV infected women to their infants

3

  • PPTCT refers to specific program to identify HIV infected pregnant women and to provide them with effective interventions to reduce MTCT

  • The most important risk factor for MTCT is the VIRAL LOAD. High viral load is seen with recent HIV infection or with advanced HIV/AIDS


Slide11 l.jpg

  • ANC for the HIV infected woman includes basic prenatal care that emphasizes identifying and treating HIV related diseases

  • ARV prophylaxis for the mother and infant decreases the risk of MTCT during labor.

  • However, ARV prophylaxis does not decrease the long term risk of transmission during breastfeeding.


Slide12 l.jpg

PPTCT core interventions

HIV testing and counseling

ARV prophylaxis

Safer delivery practices

Safer infant feeding practices

How these interventions work

Identifies HIV infected women

Reduced maternal viral load during pregnancy

Reduced infant exposure to the virus during labor

Reduced infant exposure to the virus through safer feeding options


Ways to reduce mtct l.jpg

Ways to reduce MTCT

  • HIV testing and counseling

  • Early MTP- when safe and acceptable to the woman

  • ARV prophylaxis

  • Elective Cesarean section when safe and feasible.

  • Safer obstetrical procedures.

  • Infant feeding counseling for safer infant feeding practices.


Arv prophylaxis l.jpg

ARV prophylaxis

  • ARV prophylaxis, given to a HIV positive pregnant woman does not confer long term benefit to the woman herself

  • With advanced HIV –combined ARV prophlaxis and treatment


Arv prophylaxis15 l.jpg

ARV prophylaxis

  • In industrialized countries –

    • triple drug ARV,

    • No breastfeeding,

    • Elective LSCS- rate of MTCT is 2%

  • ARV prophylaxis can reduce MTCT by 40-70%. Current regimens prevent infection only during early breast feeding period.


Partner involvement in pptct l.jpg

Partner involvement in PPTCT

  • Both partners need to be aware of the importance of the safe sex through out pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  • Both partners should be counseled and tested for HIV

  • Both partners should be made aware of and provided with PPTCT interventions.


The four pronged approach17 l.jpg

The four-pronged approach

1

4

2

3


Slide18 l.jpg

4

Provision of treatment, care and

support to HIV infected women,

their children and their families

  • Medical care and social support are important in helping these women

  • We need to address concerns about their own health and the that of their children and families

  • If a woman is assured of this, she is more likely to accept counseling and testing and if infected, interventions to reduce MTCT


Hiv related treatment care and support services for women l.jpg

HIV related treatment, care and support services for women

  • Prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections

  • ARV treatment

  • Palliative and non-ARV care

  • Nutritional support

  • Reproductive health care including family planning and counseling

  • Psychosocial and community support


Care and support of the hiv exposed infant and child l.jpg

Care and support of the HIV exposed infant and child

  • These children have a higher risk of illness and malnutrition.

  • They may be infected with HIV and may become ill even when adequate health care and nutrition are provided

  • Those who do not receive breast feeding lack its protective benefits against gastroenteritis, respiratory infections and other complications

  • If mother is ill, she may be unable to give adequate care

  • The family may be economically vulnerable due to AIDS related illness and deaths among adults


Nutritional support for hiv exposed infant or child l.jpg

Nutritional support for HIV exposed infant or child

  • Supporting the mother’s chosen infant feeding option

  • Providing education on hydration and early reporting of diarrhea

  • Monitoring for growth and development

  • Monitoring for signs of infection that can alter feeding patterns

  • Regular follow-up during first 2 years of life, including immunizations and HIV testing


Slide22 l.jpg

THANK YOU


  • Login