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Response to Intervention (RtI) at the Secondary Level: Keys to Implementation. Madi Phillips, Ph.D. NCSP I-ASPIRE Regional Coordinator. Big Ideas about Today’s Presentation. We’re aligning a delivery system to educational needs.

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response to intervention rti at the secondary level keys to implementation

Response to Intervention (RtI) at the Secondary Level: Keys to Implementation

Madi Phillips, Ph.D. NCSP

I-ASPIRE Regional Coordinator

big ideas about today s presentation
Big Ideas about Today’s Presentation
  • We’re aligning a delivery system to educational needs.
  • We’re increasing the quality of teaching, tools, and support across 3-Tiers instead of moving the problem.
  • We’re shifting mind sets: Every problem learning (or behaving) becomes a special education problem.
  • In a perfect world, we shouldn’t have “RtI” (as an eligibility process) at the secondary level.
  • We’re shifting “Interventions” focus from reactive, punitive, and/or restrictive to proactive, preventative, inclusive.
  • We have the tools and we have experience, but there is a gap.
without problem solving
Without Problem Solving

Special Education

Sea of Ineligibility

General Education

student profiles
Student Profiles
  • 8.7 million 4th-12th graders can’t cope with academic demands
  • 74% of all 9th graders scored at Unsatisfactory or Basic Level on state assessment
    • Unsatisfactory = 3%ile WR; 1%ile RC
    • Basic=9%ile WR; 8%ile RC
  • 70% of adolescents graduate; 50% of students with color do
  • Students who stay “on track” in freshman year (earn 5 credits and no more than 1 F) 3.5 times as likely to graduate
student profiles cont
Student Profiles (cont)
  • “On-track Indicator”
    • Students who stay “on track” in freshman year (earn 5 credits and no more than 1 F) 3.5 times as likely to graduate
    • One semester F decreases likelihood of graduating from 83% to 60%
    • 2 Fs decreases likelihood to 44%
    • 3 Fs decreases likelihood to 31%
the old problem solving heuristic

Severity of Educational Need or Problem

Special Education

Amount of

Resources

Needed

To Benefit

General Education

with Support

General Education

The “Old” Problem Solving Heuristic
what is not rti it s not your father s oldsmobile
What is NOT RtI: It’s not your father’s Oldsmobile
  • It’s Not About SE Eligibility with a new label (e.g., pre-referral intervention, old team-new name).
  • It’s Not About SE “Business as Usual” with programs that meet the needs of adults more than students.
  • Expecting GE Teachers to meet the needs of ALL students (180 students-180 different interventions).
presentation intended outcomes
Presentation Intended Outcomes
  • Describe a heuristic for multi-tiered service delivery for middle and high schools to meet the academic and socio-emotional/behavioral needs.
  • Provide illustrations of effective reading assessment for
      • Universal Screening,
      • Problem Identification
      • Progress Monitoring in Reading Intervention.
  • Provide illustrations of effective assessment and intervention tools necessary for
      • Basic Reading Skills
      • Success in Content-Area Classes
      • Behavioral Support
  • Give you strategies for implementation.
problem solving steps

Problem Identification

What is the Problem and Is it Significant?

Problem Analysis

Why is it happening?

Plan Evaluation

Did our plan work?

Plan Development

What shall we do about it?

Problem Solving Steps
slide11

The VISION:To Provide Effective Interventions to Meet the Needs of ALL Students Through Early and Scientifically Based Interventions Through Careful Systems Planning

Batsche, G. M., Elliott, J., Graden, J., Grimes, J., Kovaleski, J. F., Prasse, D., et al. (2005). Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Inc.

the performance gap

/

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

Years in School

The Performance Gap

/

The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

the performance gap1
The Performance Gap

/

Grade Level

Expectations

Demands

Skills

Existing

Support

Years in School

The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

the performance gap2

Infrastructure

Supports

The Performance Gap

Grade Level

Expectations

Demands

Skills

  • Infrastructure Support
  • Flexible Scheduling
  • Planning Time
  • Professional Development Time
  • Extended Learning Time
  • Smaller Learning Communities

/

Existing

Support

Years in School

The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

the performance gap3

System Learning Supports

  • Progress Monitoring
  • Data-Based Decision Making
  • Problem-Solving
  • Instructional Coaching
  • Professional Learning
The Performance Gap

/

Instructional

Core

System Learning

Supports

Infrastructure Supports

Current Supports

Grade Level

Expectations

Demands

Skills

Years in School

The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

the performance gap4

Instructional Core

  • Motivation/Behavior Supports
  • Smarter Standards-Based Curriculum Planning
  • Engaging Instructional Materials& Activities
  • Student-Informed Teaching
  • Connected Courses & Coherent Learning
  • Continuum of Literacy Instruction
The Performance Gap

/

Instructional

Core

System Learning

Supports

Infrastructure Supports

Current Supports

Grade Level

Expectations

Demands

Skills

Years in School

The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

slide18

Problem Identification

What is the Problem and Is it Significant?

Problem Analysis

Why is it happening?

Plan Evaluation

Did our plan work?

Plan Development

What shall we do about it?

Problem Solving Process

School Improvement Cycle

http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/school.htm

Similarities?

school improvement activity
School Improvement Activity
  • What are your current SI Goals?
  • What content is covered in the current professional development plan?
  • What problems or issues often come up at your school?
so what is rti
So...WHAT is RTI?

1. An eligibility process for determining if a student has a learning disability?

2. An opportunity to redress years of dissatisfaction with both special education and general education?

We See IT as Both

how we see it

RTI

How We See It

Needs-Based Service Delivery Systems

Problem-Solving Service Delivery System

program vs framework
Program vs. Framework
  • Response to Intervention (RtI) and School-wide Positive Behavior Support are not programs, but frameworks for designing and implementing proactive, preventative programming using data.
slide24

Basic Skills or

Functional Literacy

Pr

oblem?

No

Y

es

Instruction in Content

What

Instruction in Basic or

Ar

ea Knowledge

Literacy Skills

Service?

Dir

ect Service

Thru

Dir

ect Service

Thr

ough

How?

Special Education

GE; Indirect

Service

Thru SE or GE Interventions

Master

Basic or

Literacy

Master

Content

Ar

ea

Goal

Skills

Knowledge

Evaluation

Mainstream

Consultation

CBM

Agreements

T

ool

CTM’s & VM

A

Secondar

y Pr

oblem-Solving Model

who do we serve in a problem solving model
Who Do We Serve in a Problem-Solving Model?

We identify:

1. Students with Basic Skills or Severe Literacy Deficits for Direct Service

2. Students without these Deficits who Need Indirect Service for Success in Content Area Courses

a model of secondary special education service delivery should be predicated on
A Model of Secondary Special Education Service Delivery Should Be Predicated On:

1. Students with serious functional literacy or basic skills deficits receiving instruction in these skills via special education

2. Students without serious functional literacy or basic skills deficits receiving instruction in content area courses via general education with relevant special education assistance or general education interventions

slide30

Grade 8 Material < 10th percentile at beginning of Grade 8

High School Student with Severe Reading Problem

what does r cbm measure

ALL

These Skills

General Reading Skill

What Does R-CBM Measure?

Beware the Trap of the BOXES-

Low Scores “in the Box” Mean You Must TEACH the Things in the Box

slide37

•Life Experience

• Content Knowledge

• Activation of Prior

Knowledge

• Knowledge about

Texts

• Motivation &

Engagement

• Active Reading

Strategies

• Monitoring Strategies

• Fix-Up Strategies

• Oral Language Skills

• Knowledge of Language

Structures

• Vocabulary

• Cultural Influences

Language

Fluency*

We Refer to It as

General Reading Skills

Reading

Comprehension

Metacognition

Knowledge

• Prosody

• Automaticity/Rate

• Accuracy

• Decoding

• Phonemic Awareness

The Bigger Deficits Here

And Here

Oral Reading is the EASIEST to Measure--Let’s Get This Down and Add MORE Tools

And the MOST Unmotivated Here

For Some, the Hardest Thing They’ll Ever Do

The Easiest Thing To Teach

The Longer It Takes...

*modified slightly from presentations by Joe Torgesen, Ph.D. Co-Director, Florida Center for Reading Research; www.fcrr.org

possible data sources activity
Possible Data Sources Activity
  • Brainstorm the potential data sources in your school…
  • Examples may include:
    • Dean Referrals, Tardies, Suspensions, Expulsions, Outside Placements, Drop Outs
    • Common Assessments, CBM, Yearly Progress Pro, Failure Rates
slide44

The High School Solution:

Building Continuously Improving Tier 1 General Education Instruction

~5%

~15%

Use of Teaching Routines and Learning Strategies (Kansas)

Well-Designed Curriculum with a “Big Ideas” Focus or Ability to “Distill” Curriculum to Big Ideas

Effective Secondary Classroom Management

Study and Organizational Skills

Curriculum Modification

~80% of Students

increase the capacity of general education to teach all students critical content

all

most

some

Increase the Capacity of General Education to Teach ALL Students Critical Content
  • All students learn critical content required in the core curriculumregardlessof literacy levels.
  • Teacherscompensate for limited literacy levels by using…
    • Explicit teaching routines,
    • Adaptations, and
    • Technology to promote content mastery.
  • For example: The Unit Organizer Routine
key skills sets for secondary support http www ku crl org
Key Skills Sets for Secondary Support(http://www.ku-crl.org/)
content enhancement routines creating learning friendly classrooms
Content Enhancement Routines (Creating “learning-friendly” classrooms)
  • A way of teaching academically diverse classes in which…
    • The integrity of the content is maintained
    • Critical content is selected and transformed
    • Content is taught in an active partnership with students

The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

content enhancement teaching routines
Planning & Leading Learning

Course Organizer

Unit Organizer

Lesson Organizer

Exploring Text, Topics, & Details

Framing Routine

Survey Routine

Clarifying Routine

Ordering Routine

Teaching Routines

Concept Mastery Routine

Concept Anchoring Routine

Concept Comparison Routine

Increasing Performance

Quality Assignment Routine

Question Exploration Routine

Recall Enhancement Routine

Content Enhancement Teaching Routines

The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

slide54

The Unit Organizer

Elida Cordora

NAME

4

BIGGER PICTURE

1/22

DATE

The roots and consequences of civil unrest.

LAST UNIT

/Experience

NEXT UNIT

/Experience

CURRENT UNIT

3

2

1

CURRENT UNIT

The Civil War

The Causes of the Civil War

Growth of the Nation

8

is about...

UNIT SCHEDULE

5

UNIT MAP

1/22 Cooperative groups -

over pp. 201-210

Sectionalism

was based on

was influenced by

1/28 Quiz

pp. 201-236

1/29 Cooperative groups -

Leaders

over pp. 210-225

Areas of

across the

became greater with

emerged because of

the U.S.

U.S.

"Influential Personalities"

project due

Differences

Events in

1/30 Quiz

between

the U.S.

the areas

2/2 Cooperative groups -

over pp. 228-234

2/6 Review for test

2/7 Review for test

2/6 Test

6

descriptive

What was sectionalism as it existed in the U. S. of 1860?

compare/contrast

UNIT SELF-TEST

QUESTIONS

How did the differences in the sections of the U.S. in 1860 contribute to the start of the Civil War?

UNIT

RELATIONSHIPS

cause/effect

What examples of sectionalism exist in the world today?

7

slide55

United

States

Russia

1993

CONCEPT DIAGRAM

À

Â

CONVEY CONCEPT

Á

Key Words

À

Democracy

a form of government

Á

OFFER OVERALL

CONCEPT

Â

NOTE KEY WORDS

Ã

CLASSIFY

CHARACTERISTICS

Always Present

Sometimes Present

Never Present

leaders accountable by elections

direct representation

rule by king

Athens

citizens have equal voting rights

indirect representation

rule by dictator

centralized power

individuals can oppose government

censorship of press

decentralized power

all views are tolerated

hereditary transfer of power

leaders

accountable

separation of power

statement of civil & political rights

unified power

Ä

Examples:

Nonexamples:

EXPLORE EXAMPLES

views

tolerated

United States

China in 1993

direct

England in 1993

England under Henry VIII

Athens (500 B.C.)

Macedonia (under Alexander)

indirect

Å

PRACTICE WITH NEW EXAMPLE

rule by dictator

A democracy is a form of government in which leaders are accountable to the people through elections, citizens have equal voting rights, individuals can oppose the government, all views are tolerated, and there is a statement of civil and political right

Æ

TIE DOWN A

DEFINITION

slide56

Key Topic

Progressive Era

The FRAME Routine

is about…

Main idea

Main idea

Main idea

Tools for Social Change

Social Changes

Essential details

Essential details

Essential details

Limited voting rights

Commerce and Labor

Departments

Anti- trust Act

Unsafe food

Monopolies

Unsafe and unfair

working conditions

Meat Inspection Act

Bully pulpits forced

new laws

Demonstrators

created public pressure

Activists organized

protests

Voting rights

expanded

Muckrakers wrote

about problems

So What? (What’s important to understand about this?)

To really create social change, many people

have to be organized, outspoken, and persistent!

a period of social change in the U. S.

Social Problems

learning strategies curriculum
Learning Strategies Curriculum

The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

acquisition strategy self questioning
Acquisition StrategySelf-Questioning
  • Attend to clues as you read
  • Say some questions
  • Keep predictions in mind
  • Identify the answer
  • Talk about the answers

The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

embedded strategy instruction example of ask it strategy implementation
Embedded strategy instruction-Example of ASK IT Strategy Implementation

All teachers teach the steps of a self-questioning strategy (ASK IT), regularly model its use, and then embed paraphrasing activities in course activities through the year to create a culture of “active reading.”

The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

storage strategy first letter mnemonic
Storage StrategyFirst-Letter Mnemonic
  • Form a word with first letters
  • Insert a letter
  • Rearrange the letters
  • Shape a sentence
  • Try combinations

The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

expression strategy error monitoring
Expression StrategyError Monitoring

Write on every other line using PENS

Read the paper for meaning

Interrogate yourself using the COPS questions

Take the paper to someone for help

Execute a final copy

Reread your paper

The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

slide62
GOOD NEWS!!

SASED has identified several local certified trainers

and is planning to offer a workshop series on the

University of Kansas

Content Enhancement Routines

&

Learning Strategies Curriculum

for the 2008-2009 school year.

how will content area strategy instruction be provided
How will Content-Area Strategy Instruction be provided?
  • Middle School
    • Embedded into content-area courses
    • Strategy Instruction course as part of the fine arts rotation
    • Strategic tutoring in place of foreign language
  • High School
    • Embedded into content-area courses
    • Strategic tutoring in place of study hall
    • Strategy Instruction as an elective
components of well designed syllabi
Components of Well-Designed Syllabi
  • Contact Information
  • Course Goals and Big Ideas
  • Instructions and Directions as to How to Get Help
  • Course Materials
  • Behavior Expectations and Consequences
  • Detailed Information About the Grading System
  • Course Calendar and Due Dates
  • Self Monitoring Checklists
  • Access to Models for Papers, Projects, Tests
slide69

The

Course Organizer

Teacher(s):

Student:

Time:

Course Dates:

Course Standards:

This Course:

What?

How?

Value?

Content:

is

about

Process:

Course Questions:

Course Progress Graph

Introduction to Poetry

1. Understanding form Journals 20%

2. Understanding content Papers 60%

3. Reflecting on reader Class 20%

responses Discussions

Empowering students to learn what poetry is,

what poetry does, and how poetry works.

Critical vocabulary Class demo

Paraphrasing Class demo

Note-taking Class demo

1. How do poets resemble/differ from writers of other types of

literature?

2. What kinds of information do poems present?

3. What writing tools and strategies do poets use?

4. Why do some readers like poetry and others dislike it?

5. What are the key traditions in poetry that will most usefully

contextualize poetry for today’s readers?

6. What are common themes in poetry, and how do the themes

speak to readers’ experiences?

Ray Pence, Graduate Teaching Assistant, English

slide70

Course Map

This Course:

Student:

includes

Performance

Options

Community

Principles

Learning Rituals

Critical Concepts

Learned in these

Units

Introduction to Poetry

Listening

Persistence

Mutual & Self-respect

Openmindedness

Group presentations

Visual representations

Papers

Websites

Small-group collaborations

Reading journals

Public poetry events

Finding poetry in your immediate environment

Student-teacher conferences

Voice Figurative Language Performance

Rhythm Poetic traditions Art

Diction Poetic forms Use-value

Persona Oral histories

Poetry as Reflection &

illumination of world

Poetry as Storytelling

Poetry as Journey

and exploration

Poetry as Social History

Poetry as Autobiography

Ray Pence, Graduate Teaching Assistant, English

slide71

Not Everything We Teach Is Equally Important“The sheer quantity of information requires us to constantly determine what to include in a course”Keith Lenz, 2003

http://www.ku-crl.org/archives/classroom/smarter.html

students need intensive intervention to work on basic literacy components
Students need intensive intervention to work on basic literacy components.
  • Students develop the foundational phonics, fluency, and comprehension skills through specialized, direct, and intensive instruction in reading. Intensive instruction in listening, speaking, and writing is often a part of these services.
  • For example: Courses in researched-based reading

programs such as the SRA Corrective Reading Program or REACH.

how will basic literacy skill instruction be provided
How will basic literacy skill instruction be provided?
  • Requires a double-block schedule of English/Language Arts and Reading.
  • Where does the time come from?
    • High School Option
      • Reading as an elective
    • Middle School Options
      • Reading instruction instead of foreign language
      • Reading course within the fine arts rotation
an intensive multi faceted option for those who need it
An intensive multi-faceted option for those who need it.
  • Students with underlying language needs learn the linguistic, related cognitive, metalinguistic, and metacognitive underpinnings they need to acquire content literacy skills and strategies.
  • For example: Speech-language pathologists, special education teachers, and social workers engage students in educational language and literacy instruction using a researched-based program such as the Sopris West Language! Program.
slide76

http://www.corelearn.com/PDFS/Briefing%20Papers/CORE%20Briefing%20Paper%20Secondary%20Reading.pdfhttp://www.corelearn.com/PDFS/Briefing%20Papers/CORE%20Briefing%20Paper%20Secondary%20Reading.pdf

read the carnegie documents http www carnegie org literacy why html
Read the Carnegie Documents:http://www.carnegie.org/literacy/why.html
websites for scientifically based behavior support
Websites for Scientifically Based Behavior Support
  • National Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS): www.pbis.org
  • Safe and Civil Schools: www.safeandcivilschools.com
high school tier 1 example
High School Tier 1 Example:
  • English Dept. prior to 1993:
    • Reading and writing skills were not taught in a consistent manner at LFHS
    • Members of the English Dept. began learning about Nancie Atwell’s reading and writing workshops and developed a proposal to bring this concept to LFHS
    • The School Board approved the proposal and all teachers were trained in the program for the 1994-95 school year
writing workshop
Writing Workshop
  • PRINCIPLES AND REQUIREMENTS:
    • Each student must produce 3 pieces of writing that go through the conferencing process
    • Each student must produce a portfolio of the writing process
    • The focus is on the writing process
    • Students must have ownership and their written work must be student-generated
reading workshop
Reading Workshop
  • PRINCIPLES AND REQUIREMENTS:
    • At least 12 days/year must be devoted to reading workshop
    • Students should be provided time to read
    • Students should gain ownership over texts by selecting what they read
    • Students should respond to text in a variety of ways and there must be teacher/student interaction regarding reading
english dept 2005 06
English Dept 2005-06
  • High level of satisfaction with the writing skills of students at LFHS
  • Less satisfaction with reading skills and overall enjoyment of reading (based off of 1st semester English finals and anecdotal information)
vocabulary the broad context
Vocabulary: The Broad Context…..

“Of the many compelling reasons for providing students with instruction to build vocabulary, none is more important than the contribution of vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension. Indeed, one of the most enduring findings in reading research is the extent to which students’ vocabulary knowledge relates to their reading comprehension.”

Lehr, F., Osborn, J., Hiebert, E.H. (2004). Focus on Vocabulary, San Francisco: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.

slide89

Bringing Words to Life

Isabel Beck

M. McKeown

L. Kucan

Guilford Press

results
Results…
  • Tier One - Basic words
    • chair, bed, happy, house
  • Tier Two - Words in general use, but not common
    • concentrate, absurd, fortunate, relieved, dignity, convenient
  • Tier Three - Rare words limited to a specific domain
    • tundra, igneous rocks
how can we use this information
How can we use this information?
  • Vocabulary Matching Screening can be completed in about 15 minutes
    • Using the cut scores provided we have reason to believe that students with scores
      • less than 15 are likely to require strategic or intensive assistance
      • between 16 and 25 may require strategic assistance
      • above 25 are likely to be on track and can continue with instruction as planned
    • in order to meet academic expectations for Illinois State Achievement test in 10th grade
program options
Program Options

Tier 1:

Pre-teaching Key Vocabulary

Tier 2:

Co-taught English/Reading Block with REWARDS

Co-taught Course on before, during, and after reading strategies with a focus on content-area text

Tier 3:

Social Opportunities Academic Readiness(SOAR): Includes Language!; Social Language Skills; Vocational Opportunities; Post-Secondary Exploration

slide101

Intermediate and Secondary

Reading

Interventions

high school tier 2 example freshman reading classes
High School Tier 2 Example: Freshman Reading Classes
  • Class A: guided reading, modeling, class discussions, comprehension checks, oral reading, graphic organizers, REWARDS
  • Class B: guided reading, modeling, class discussions, comprehension checks, oral reading, graphic organizers
wrc mean rate of growth per week
WRC Mean Rate of Growth Per Week
  • Class A mean rate of growth = 0.67 WRC/week
  • Class B mean rate of growth = -1.22 WRC/week
next steps
Next Steps…
  • Math!
    • Math Department Proposal:
      • Screening & Progress Monitoring
      • Yearly Progress Pro (YPP) McGraw-Hill
        • Includes: CBM & Custom Tests
ypp examples
YPP Examples

7th Grade Math Class

8th Grade CBM Probe

developing components
Developing Components
  • Systems
    • General survey of priorities, Effective Behavior Support Survey, Team Implementation Checklist tell you what you want to do
  • Practices
    • School-wide Evaluation Tool tells you how much is in place
  • Data
    • Curriculum Based Measures and Office Referral Data tell you with whom to focus

Steve Romano and Hank Bohanon

slide114

School wide Expectations

  • Identify expectations of the setting
  • Develop team/plan/support
  • Directly teach expectations
  • Consistent Consequences, Acknowledge/Reinforce (Tall, Vente’, Grande)
  • Collect Data
  • Communicate with staff
  • On-going evaluation
slide115

Accessed 3-7-06 = http://web.utk.edu/~swpbs/schools/data/hchs/HCHS%20SET%209%2028%2005.doc

slide117

(02-03 compared to 03-04 X2 = 53.199, df = 2, p = .000)

(03-04 compared to 04-05 X2 = 6.324, df = 2, p = .042)

systems data
Systems/Data
  • System - SET Information
    • Overall Score approximately 80%
    • Teaching @ 70%
    • Acknowledgment @ 50%
  • Impact data
    • School has access to discipline and attendance data
practice
Practice
  • To address tardies (high school) – names of students from class were put into a drawing. Four students’ names were drawn at random weekly, if they had no tardies, they could choose a prize.
report from school
Report from School
  • Teachers were not able to sustain, teachers did not remember to conduct drawings.
  • We can use department chairs to provide reminders and support to staff (System)
at least at the school wide level you are trying to get 80 of your staff teaching
At least at the school-wide level – you are trying to get 80% of your staff teaching!

In Illinois – when schools get to 80/80

  • Fewer risk factors
  • More protective factors
  • More likely to have tried interventions beyond SW
  • More students with fewer discipline problems

http://www.pbisillinois.org/ (see FYO5 Report)

examples of targeted interventions
Examples of Targeted Interventions
  • Behavior Education Program (BEP)
    • Check-In, Check-Out
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment/ Behavior Support Planning**



behavior education program bep features
Behavior Education Program (BEP)Features
  • Students identified and receive within a week
  • Check-in and check-out daily with an adult at school
  • Regular Feedback and reinforcement from teachers
  • Family component
  • Daily performance data used to evaluate progress

Taken from: Hawken & March, 2004

slide126

General

Data

Decision

Rules

step 1 problem identification
Step 1: Problem Identification

Question: What is the discrepancy between what is expected and what is occurring?

  • 2/3 of Maple’s individual student referrals were due to lack of on-time assignment/homework completion.
slide128
A homework assignment is defined as any academic assignment assigned by a core academic, foreign language, allied arts, or physical education teacher to be completed after school. Homework does not include bringing appropriate supplies to class, turning in forms of any kind, or participation in fundraising activities.
  • A homework assignment that is turned in on time is defined as being received by the assigning teacher at the requested day and class period.
comparison of fall 2003 and fall 2004 homework completion
2003

Average student had 18 assignments

Average student turned in one assignment late

Average student had 7% of homework late

2004

Average student had 18 assignments

Average student turned in one assignment late

Average student had 6% of homework late

Comparison of Fall 2003 and Fall 2004 homework completion
total number of homework turned in late
Total Number of Homework Turned in Late

~3

~3

Fall 2003

Fall 2004

~2

~2

~0-1 assignments

~0-1 assignments

step 2 problem analysis
Step 2: Problem Analysis

Question: Why is the problem occurring?

Teachers determined a number of hypotheses including:

  • Lack of time
  • Lack of skill
  • Lack of motivation/interest in the subject area
step 3 plan development
Step 3: Plan Development

Question: What is the goal?

  • All students would turn in at least 80% of their homework on time.

Question: How will progress be monitored?

  • Teachers will meet weekly and calculate the average work turned in per week for all students attending Homework Extension.
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Question: What is the intervention plan to address the goal?
  • Homework Extension takes place during lunch periods. Students assigned to Homework Extension will go to the lunchroom to get their lunch (if purchasing their lunch) and then report to the Homework Extension classroom.
  • Homework Extension is supervised by one/two of the lunch room supervisors in a separate classroom.
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Homework Extension lasts the entire lunch period for the course of five school days. Students are then reevaluated. If work completion exceeds 80%, the student may return to the lunchroom. If not, he/she will be reassigned to Homework Extension.
  • If a student attends Homework Extension for three consecutive weeks, then the student is automatically referred for individual student problem solving.
step 4 plan implementation
Step 4: Plan Implementation

Question: How will implementation

integrity be ensured?

The principal required a weekly e-mail sent out to report which students qualified for Homework Extension and which attended Homework Extension and met their goals.

The principal and assistant principal found a classroom and staff who would assist and monitor students’ work completion during lunch.

step 5 plan evaluation
Step 5: Plan Evaluation

Question: Is the intervention plan effective?

  • Are the students making progress toward the goal?
    • Yes, 66% of students were in HE for 1 week. (33%-2 weeks; 3%-3weeks; 11 students total.)
  • Is the student decreasing the discrepancy between him/her and the general education peers?
    • Yes, 77% of students were in HE only 1x. (11%-2x; 8%-3x; 4%-4x; 6 students total.)
  • Is the plan able to be maintained in the general education setting?
    • No, 34% of students were involved in HE; Universal not targeted problem.
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