Dangerous addictions
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Dangerous Addictions. The Struggle with Drug Cartels. Rise of the Drug Cartels. Geographic location always made Mexico a valuable center for transportation of narcotics . Cartels have become more powerful since the demise of the Colombian Cartels in the 1990’s

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Dangerous addictions

Dangerous Addictions

The Struggle with Drug Cartels


Rise of the drug cartels

Rise of the Drug Cartels

  • Geographic location always made Mexico a valuable center for transportation of narcotics.

  • Cartels have become more powerful since the demise of the Colombian Cartels in the 1990’s

  • Wholesale earnings from drugs range from 13- 48 billion dollars.


Origin of drug cartels

Origin of Drug Cartels

  • Smuggling to U.S. Border

    • Opium

    • Cocaine

    • Marijuana

  • Connections made him point man for Pablo Escobar.

  • Privatized the Mexican Drug business.

  • Arrested on April 8 1989

  • Gulf Cartel: oldest organized crime group now operating (1970-present

  • Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo

    (El Padrino)


    Dangerous addictions

    The War on Drugs: Felipe Calderon

    • 2006

      • December 1: Calderon assumes presidency & declares war on drug traffickers

      • Operation Michoacana is launched against La FamiliaMichoacana cartel

    • 2007

      • Popular singer Sergio Gómez is kidnapped and killed

      • Entire police force in Baja California stripped of weapons due to suspicion of collaboration with cartels.

      • Drug related death reached 2,477

    • 2008

      • Death Toll: 6,290

    • 2009

      • Death Toll: 7,724

    • 2010 & 2012

      • Estimated Death Rate: 15,000 each year


    Cartels are territorial

    Cartels are Territorial


    Dangerous addictions

    Operation of the Drug Cartels

    • Highest Level Cartels

      • Sinaloa

        • Most powerful cartel in Mexico today

        • Proximity to border

        • Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzman

      • Others:

        • Pacific Cartel

        • Knights Templar

        • Zetas

    • Role of Drug Lords

      • Set prices

      • Track shipments

      • Manage employment

      • Handle pay-offs


    Dangerous addictions

    Operation of the Drug Cartels

    • Use of Violence to Protect Territory

      • Over 34,000 deaths since 2007

      • Kidnappings and hostage situations

    [

    [

    • “There are no codes. There are no boundaries. There are no limits. There is a high degree of impunity. That’s the big worry of all of us that live in Mexico. There were limits in the past; now there are no limits.”

    • -Security Consultant Carlos Seoane,

    • on kidnappings by drug cartels.


    Dangerous addictions

    Mexican Government’s War on Drugs

    Factors Driving Mexico’s

    Drug Policy

    • Government corruption

      • Ranked 2nd most corrupt police force in the world

      • Many upper level officials have faced corruption charges

    • U.S. pressure to curb the illegal drug trade

    • Vast crime and violence from the drug cartels

    • Voter dissatisfaction triggered by the violence


    Dangerous addictions

    The Government’s War on Drugs

    Government combating police corruption

    • August 2010: Mexico fired 10% of federal police force.

    • The anti-cartel operations begun by President Calderón in December 2006 included ballistic checks of police weapons

    • Proposed creation of a national criminal database and a department to oversee coordination among police forces and anti-corruption efforts. 

    • An extra 1,800 federal agents sent intobattle with drug cartels


    Dangerous addictions

    [

    [

    "This is not 'the government's war against drugs,' but the fight of all Mexicans to build an authentic security, based on the rule of law and justice.” -National Security Spokesman Alejandro Poire

    The Government’s War on Drugs

    Mexico’s fight against drug cartels

    • 2006: roughly 36,000 troops deployed to work with the federal police

    • 2008 constitutional reform merges the Federal Preventive Police (PFP) and the Federal Agency of Investigation (AFI),.

    • 2011 Calderon's administration ordered troops and federal police to a Gulf coast state where gunmen dumped 35 bound bodies on a busy avenue.


    M rida initiative

    Mérida Initiative

    • October 22, 2007- US and Mexico issued a statement announcing the start of the initiative

    • Eventually signed into law on June 30, 2008 by G.W. Bush

    • Overall agreement to expand bilateral and regional counternarcotic and security cooperation in Mexico and in Central America

    • Goal: Reduce $12-15 billion yearly ash flow of drugs between the US and Mexico


    What is the m rida initiative

    What is the Mérida Initiative?

    • It is a multiyear plan for US assistance in Mexico and Central America

    • Predicted to cost about $500 million in Mexico and $50 million in Central America

    • Mexico was the area in need of the most aid- Mexican military and law enforcement


    Goals

    • Mexico: to enhance and complement US and Mexican efforts against drug, human and weapons trafficking

    • Central America: to strengthen the capacity of the government to find and destroy unauthorized drugs, goods, arms and people

    Goals


    Budget

    • Mexico: $500 million for planes, parts, training, expansion of the immigrations agency database and verification system, securing communications systems, law enforcement training, etc.

    • Central America: $16.6 million spread throughout the 7 countries

    • Expenditures

      • support for the CA Fingerprinting Exploitation (CAFÉ),

      • technical assistance on firearms tracing and destruction, border security

      • anti-gang efforts

    Budget


    Training of agents

    Training of Agents

    • Training is included in a $24 million proposal which also covers logistics and spare parts

    • 4,500 federal police have already completed training

      • Taught by law enforcements professionals from other countries

  • Millions for canine training


  • Training of agents continued

    Training of Agents Continued…

    • Skills learned

      • criminal investigative techniques, evidence collection, crime scene preservation and ethics

      • How to view contents of rail cars using Railroad, Vehicle, and Cargo Inspection Systems

      • How to detect weapons and drugs in cars, trains and many types of containers

      • How to hold, transport and classify prisoners


    Interrogation controversy

    Interrogation Controversy

    • A US Secretary Firm Instructor in Mexico was accused of teaching city police officers “enhanced interrogation” techniques

    • Line between “enhanced interrogation” and torture not always clear


    Dangerous addictions

    • Upgrading Capabilities of Mexican & Central American Governments

    • The US helps to train police, prosecutors and defenders 

      • Support from the US is helping to develop correction systems

      • The Mexican government has used funds to establish a corrections academy to train federal correctional staff.

      • Similar efforts in Guatemala, El Salvador & Costa Rica


    Dangerous addictions

    Equipment Exchange

    •Eight Bell helicopters to the Mexican Army/Air Force

    •Three UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters to the Federal Police

    •Three UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters to the Mexican Navy


    Dangerous addictions

    Security Cooperation: Drones

    Orbiter Mini UAV


    Dangerous addictions

    Secretary of State Clinton involved


    Dangerous addictions

    • Solutions towards Security Cooperation

    • Embedded U.S. Security Forces:

      • Trust:  Information can be compartmentalized

      • Training:  Experts can give on the job training

      • Equipment:  U.S. forces can have access to                 American technology

      • Laws:  Small teams can take advantage of loopholes

      • Funding:  Cost effective compared to pure funding

    B


    Dangerous addictions

    • Criticisms of Merida 

    • •The Mérida Initiative is called "Plan Mexico" by critics, to point out its similarities to Plan Columbia

    • •In "Plan Columbia", U.S. has heavily funded the Colombian military, yet cocaine production has steadily increased and registered a 27% rise in 2007, before declining in 2008 and 2009.

    • •  Comparison casts doubt on return for investment on Merida

    • Concern over potential compromise of personal privacy


    Dangerous addictions

    • Challenges to Cooperation:

      • Lack of Trust

        • Criminal Gangs have infiltrated the security Mexican security forces

        • Mexicans do not trust the U.S. government

      • Poor Training

        • Tactical, Criminal, Judicial

      • Bad Equipment

      • Restrictive Laws

        • Who is in charge?

        • Gun smuggling 

      • Limited Funding

    A


    Dangerous addictions

    • Security Cooperation:  Fast and Furious

      • Operation by U.S.  Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)

      • Encouraged gun sellers to provide guns to suspicious buyers

        • Gunwalking ("letting guns walk")

      • Over half of the 2,000 guns were lost

        • Many recovered at crime scenes too late

        • U.S. border agent (Brian Terry) killed with guns from Fast & Furious

      • ATF attempted to hide the scandal

        • Used the increase in violence from rifles as evidence it needed stronger gun laws it had long wanted.

      • Shattered trust and charges of U.S. recklessness

    E


    Dangerous addictions

    • Security Cooperation:  Political Pressure

      • 2012 is an election year for Mexico and the U.S.

      • Mexican electorate threatening change

        • Fear of corruption and violence

        • Increasing role of the U.S.

      • Barack Obama on defensive over Fast & Furious

        • Drugs are still crossing the border

        • Violence could spill over

        • Lobbyists preventing changes to gun laws

    F


    Dangerous addictions

    Drug related violence continues

    • Monterrey attacks; August 26, 2011

    • Alternative Proposals

      • Legalization of Marijuana

        • Cartels’ greatest source of income

        • Analysts suggest as best solution

        • Attack as a business, not just a crime.

        • Encourages other forms of crime?

      • Truce or Accommodation

        • Negotiate a ceasefile with cartels

        • Amnesty

    • Issue in 2012 Mexican Presidential Campaign


    Administration of government of enrique pe a nieto 2012 2018

    Administration of government of Enrique Peña Nieto (2012-2018)

    • Will the drug problem be handled differently?

      • Corruption and bribery

      • Strict rules for the cartels.

      • Crime and corruption, but violence kept off the streets


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