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Basic Indoctrination. Instrument Approach Procedures. Key Elements. 1) Definitions 2) Op Spec are controlling 3) STARs 4) Precision and Non-precision Approaches 5) Cat I Instrument Approach Procedures 6) TERPS criteria 7) Non-Precision Approach Procedures

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Basic indoctrination

Basic Indoctrination

Instrument Approach Procedures


Key elements

Key Elements

1) Definitions

2) Op Spec are controlling

3) STARs

4) Precision and Non-precision Approaches

5) Cat I Instrument Approach Procedures

6) TERPS criteria

7) Non-Precision Approach Procedures

8) Holding Patterns and Procedure Turns

9) Visual Approaches

10) Visual Cues Prior to Descent below MDA or DA(H)

11) Class I Navigation Class II Navigation

12) Approach Light System Configurations

13) Low Visibility Taxi Procedures

14) FOM and OCM Review


Definitions

INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES

DEFINITIONS


Test your knowledge

Test your knowledge!

  • Absolute Altitude

  • Airport surveillance radar approach

  • Area navigation (RNAV)

  • Automatic terminal information service (ATIS)

  • Clearance limit

  • Decision Height

  • ILS Category I

  • Non-precision approach

  • Pressure altitude

  • Runway visual range (RVR)

  • Runway visibility value (RVV)

  • Touchdown zone elevation (TDZE).

  • Visual descent point (VDP).


Operations specifications are controlling

Operations Specifications are Controlling

  • History

  • Conceptual need

  • Legal Basis

  • Availability

    FSIMS


Stars

INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES

stars


Stars1

STARS

“Standard Terminal Arrival Routes”

A STAR is an ATC coded IFR arrival route established for application to arriving IFR aircraft destined for certain airports.


Fom procedures

FOM Procedures

• Pilots shall maintain the last assigned altitude until receiving clearance to change altitude. At that time, pilots are expected to comply with all published/issued restrictions.

• The clearance may be in the form of normal descent clearance or the phraseology “Descend via.”“Descend Via”.

• A “Descend via” clearance authorizes pilots to navigate vertically and laterally, in accordance with the depicted procedure, to meet published restrictions.

• Vertical navigation is at pilot’s discretion; however, adherence to published altitude crossing restrictions and speeds is mandatory unless otherwise cleared.

NOTE

MEAs are considered restrictions; and pilots are expected to remain above MEAs. Pilots cleared for vertical navigation using the phraseology “Descend via” shall inform the next ATC facility upon initial contact.


Basic indoctrination

Preparing for the Arrival

Baltia 151, cleared to Logan International via the GARDNER TWO ARRIVAL, Albany Transition, maintain 9,000


Basic indoctrination

Baltia 151, cleared via the JANESVILLE FOUR ARRIVAL

Baltia 151, DESCEND via the JANESVILLE FOUR ARRIVAL


Star rwy 10l r sankt peterburg russia

STAR RWY 10L/R SANKT PETERBURG, RUSSIA


Star rwy 10l r sankt petersburg russia

STAR RWY 10L/R SANKT PETERSBURG, RUSSIA


Star rwy 28l r sankt peterburg russia

STAR RWY 28L/R SANKT PETERBURG, RUSSIA


Star rwy 28l r sankt petersburg russia

STAR RWY 28L/R SANKT PETERSBURG, RUSSIA


Star rwy 28l r sankt petersburg russia1

STAR RWY 28L/R SANKT PETERSBURG, RUSSIA


Star rwy 28l r sankt petersburg russia2

STAR RWY 28L/R SANKT PETERSBURG, RUSSIA


Basic indoctrination

RNAV

  • BALTIA is authorized to conduct RNAV arrivals utilizing the CMA 900 FMS.

  • Not authorized for RNAV Approaches

  • Review Area Navigation (RNAV) Arrival procedures

    AOM v1 21.1-21.2


Rnav star parch 1 kjfk jfk new york

RNAV STAR PARCH 1 KJFK/JFK NEW YORK


Star rober 1 kjfk jfk new york

STAR ROBER 1 KJFK/JFK NEW YORK


Star pawling 2 kjfk jfk new york

STAR PAWLING 2 KJFK/JFK NEW YORK


Precision and non precision approaches

INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES

Precision and non-precision approaches


Basic indoctrination

Precision approach: A standard instrument approach procedure in which both vertical and horizontal guidance is provided.

Non-Precision approach:A standard instrument approach procedure in which only horizontal guidance is provided.


Cat i instrument approach procedures

INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES

Cat I Instrument Approach Procedures


Cat i approach requirements precision non precision

CAT I APPROACH REQUIREMENTS (PRECISION & NON-PRECISION)

Pilot Qualifications

  • 1) The pilot-in-command must be specifically qualified and authorized to use minima below RVR 4000 (1200m) or 3/4 mile visibility (1200m).

    Weather Minima

  • Lowest authorized minima for Category I precision and non-precision approaches (unless higher minima are published):

  • 1) If the aircraft is established on the final approach segment and the controlling visibility decreases below the authorized minima, the approach may be continued to the applicable DA(H)/MDA for the approach being conducted.

    RVR

  • If the RVR is reported for a specific runway, the reported RVR controls. If the TDZ RVR is unavailable, use the Mid RVR report. The TDZ RVR is normally controlling. Far End RVR (if installed) provides advisory information.


Cat i approach requirements precision non precision1

CAT I APPROACH REQUIREMENTS (PRECISION & NON-PRECISION)

Ground Based Equipment (14. CFR 91.171(b), 91.171(c), 91.171(d))

1) All of the following elements of the CAT I ground system must be in normal operation:

a) Non-precision approach.

1) Nav-aids required for the approach.

2) ILS (CAT I only)

a) Localizer, glide slope.

b) Outer Marker or FAF.

3) A precision or surveillance radar fix, a designated NDB, VOR, DME fix, or a published minimum Glide Slope Intercept Altitude (GSIA) fix may be used instead of an Outer Marker.

4) Middle Marker - Not required.

a) At foreign locations, if the MM out penalty is published in the minimum box, it applies.

b) Inner Marker - Not required.

5) Lighting Requirements - Precision/Non-precision

Refer to approach chart.


Cat i approach requirements precision non precision2

CAT I APPROACH REQUIREMENTS (PRECISION & NON-PRECISION)

Descent Below DA(H)/MDA Op Spec C052

1) Upon reaching the DA(H)/MDA, and at any time prior to the missed approach point, the pilot may continue the approach below the DA(H) or MDA and touchdown if the following conditions are met:

a) The aircraft is continuously in a position from which a descent to a landing can be made at a normal rate of descent using normal maneuvers, and where that descent rate will allow touchdown to occur within the touchdown zone of the intended runway; and

b) The pilot has at least one of the following visual references for the intended runway distinctly visible and identifiable:

• Threshold.

• Threshold markings.

• Threshold lights.

• Runway End Identifier Lights (REIL).

•Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI).

• Touchdown zone, touchdown zone markings.

• Touchdown zone lights.

• Runway or runway markings.

• Runway edge lights.

• Approach Light System (ALS).

c) Sighting of LDIN lights is not sufficient to satisfy the requirement for distinct visual reference with the intended landing runway.

1) Sighting of the LDIN lights is sufficient to continue the approach beyond the MAP.

2) Do not descend below the MDA/DDA until, in addition to sighting the LDIN lights, the pilot has at least one other distinct visual reference as listed above.

d) The pilot may not descend below 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation using the approach lights as the sole reference unless:

1) The red terminating bars or the red side row bars are distinctly visible and identifiable, and

2) The flight visibility is not less than the visibility prescribed in the instrument approach procedure

being used.


Missed approach

Missed Approach

  • If the conditions stated in Descent Below DA(H)/MDA are not met, the pilot shall initiate the published missed approach at the appropriate time.


Cat ii iii approach requirements 14 cfr 91 189 g op spec c059 c060 not approved

CAT II/III APPROACH REQUIREMENTS14 CFR 91.189(g), Op Spec C059 & C060 (Not Approved)

NOTE 1

Baltia is currently “not approved” to conduct Cat II/III approaches and

landings. Dual or triple autoland may be conducted on any approved

runway to Cat I minimums. Practice triple autoland landings and

rollouts are encouraged once per rotation, to facilitate the required

data collection for Cat II/III approval.

NOTE 2

Training Cat II/III approach procedures is part of the requirement for

the approval of exemption 5549.

NOTE 3

Baltia is not authorized to conduct Cat II RA/NA (radio altimeter / not

authorized) approaches. Use Cat I procedures

NOTE 4

Baltia Is not authorized to conduct CAT II or CAT III operations at this

time


Approach restrictions 14 cfr 121 438 121 652 a 121 652 b opspec c054 c389

APPROACH RESTRICTIONS14 CFR 121.438, 121.652(a), 121.652(b), OpSpec C054, C389

Category I (Precision & Non-Precision)

1) If the Captain has less than 100 hours PIC in type (OE or F/O time does not count), accomplish the following:

a) Cat I Precision Approach.

1) Refer to Exemption 5549, this section.

b) Non-precision or Cat I Approach (Exemption

5549 not applicable).

1) Add 100 feet to DA(H)/MDA.

2) Add 1/2 mile to the visibility. For RVR additives, refer to RVR Equivalency Table, this section.


Approach restrictions 14 cfr 121 438 121 652 a 121 652 b opspec c054 c3891

APPROACH RESTRICTIONS14 CFR 121.438, 121.652(a), 121.652(b), OpSpec C054, C389

2) The following aircraft are considered the same type when satisfying these requirements: B-747-200 and B- 747-300


Terps criteria

INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES

TERPS CRITERIA


Basic indoctrination

General Criteria


Basic indoctrination

Precision Glide path Descent


Federal aviation regulations part 97

Federal Aviation Regulations Part 97

STANDARD INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES

97.1 Applicability.

(a) This part prescribes standard instrument approach procedures to civil airports in the United States and the weather minimums that apply to landings under IFR at those airports.

(b) This part also prescribes obstacle departure procedures (ODPs) for certain civil airports in the United States and the weather minimums that apply to takeoffs under IFR at civil airports in the United States.


Non precision approach procedures

INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES

NON-PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURES


Non precision approach

Non-Precision Approach


Non precision non ils approaches aom chapter 22 descent approach checklist amplification

NON-PRECISION/NON ILS APPROACHES AOM CHAPTER 22 DESCENT APPROACH CHECKLIST AMPLIFICATION

General

1- Plan all non-precision approaches to be established on the final approach course and…..

2- Be configured for landing with the “Before Landing Checklist” complete prior to the Final Approach Fix.

The final approach course on a non-precision approach may vary from the runway heading as much as 30 degrees and still be published as a straight-in approach..


Approaches without recommended altitudes

Approaches without Recommended Altitudes

The PF will:

• Use all distance/altitude guidance information in planning the descent.

• Plan to reach the MDA/(DH) before reaching the MAP

• Initiate descent to the MDA/(DH) without delay when authorized.

• Execute the missed approach procedure upon reaching the MAP if the runway environment is not in sight

The PNF will:

• Monitor descent and distance and time to go to the MAP.


Approaches with recommended altitudes continuous descent approach cda

Approaches with Recommended Altitudes, Continuous Descent Approach (CDA)

The PF will:

• Use all distance/altitude guidance information in planning the descent.

• Use distance/altitude guidance to crosscheck the normal rate of descent (approximately 600 - 900 FPM).

• Execute the missed approach procedure upon reaching the MDA if the runway environment is not in sight.

The PNF will:

• Monitor descent and distance and time to go to the MAP.


Visual descent point vdp

Visual Descent Point (VDP)

  • The visual descent point is a defined point on the final approach course on a non precision straight-in approach procedure from which a normal descent from the MDA to the runway touchdown point may be commenced…

  • Plan to reach the MDA/DH at or before the VDP. If the runway environment is acquired prior to reaching the VDP descent should not be initiated until reaching the VDP. If the runway environment is not acquired by the VDP a missed approach is probable.


Basic indoctrination

If a VDP is not identified on the approach procedure, a Pre-planned Descent Point (PDP) may be calculated using the following formula:

HAT ÷ Desired Descent Gradient (ft/nm) = PDP

If DME is available, this figure may be used to calculate a DME for the PDP. If DME is not available, or the missed approach point is determined based on time, the following formula may be used to compute a PDP:

(Published Time to Missed Approach Point) – (10% of HAT converted to Seconds) = Time to PDP


Landing from a non precision approach

Landing From a Non-Precision Approach

• If the aircraft is offset from the extended runway centerline and glide-path after acquiring the runway environment, intercept the centerline and glide path before the runway threshold.

• Avoid large bank angles, airspeed corrections, and descent rates close to the ground.

• Start removing lateral and rate of descent corrections early enough so that the aircraft is aligned with the runway extended centerline and stabilized on the approach not later that 500 feet TDZE.

• If the aircraft is not stabilized below 1,000 feet TDZE (IMC) or 500 feet TDZE (VMC) execute a missed approach.


Types of non precision approach procedures covered in aom

TYPES OF NON-PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURES COVERED IN AOM

  • Localizer/Localizer DME

  • Localizer Directional Aid (LDA/LDA DME)

  • VOR/VOR DME


Holding patterns and procedure turns

Holding Patterns and Procedure Turns


Maximum holding airspeeds

Maximum Holding Airspeeds


Procedure turns

Procedure Turns

Procedure turns are not required when:

a) Receiving radar vectors to the final approach course.

b) When flying a route designated NoPT (“NoPT” published on approach chart plan view).

c) When cleared by ATC for a straight-in approach.

d) When cleared for an approach from a holding pattern aligned with the final approach course with the holding fix being collocated with the FAF.


Procedure turn

Procedure Turn

  • 45°/180° Procedure Turn

  • 80°/260° Procedure Turn


Visual approaches usa

Visual Approaches (USA)

The flight crew may accept a visual approach provided:

  • 1) The flight is operating within 35 nautical miles of the destination airport.

  • 2) The flight remains in controlled airspace

  • 3) Reported VFR conditions exist in accordance with 14 CFR 91.155 (1000 ft. ceiling and 3 miles visibility

  • 4) The flight remains in weather conditions equal to or better than the minimum required to maintain VFR cloud separation criteria

  • 5) Visual contact is established with the traffic to be followed or the flight crew can maintain visual contact with charted visual landmark for a throughout approach and landing.


Visual approach procedures

VISUAL APPROACH PROCEDURES

  • Use all available aids such as ILS glide slope, VASI, or PAPI to maintain the proper flight path.

  • Use all appropriate navigation aids and facilities to prevent such occurrences

  • After being cleared for a visual approach, remain in VMC conditions and proceed to the airport in the most direct and safe manner

    • Acceptance of both traffic information and instructions to follow another aircraft is pilot acknowledgment that the pilot sees the other aircraft and will maneuver as necessary to avoid it or maintain in-trail separation.

    The pilot also accepts responsibility for wake turbulence separation under these conditions..


Visual cues prior to descent below mda or da h op spec c052

Visual Cues Prior to Descent below MDA or DA(H) Op Spec C052

  • Upon reaching the DA(H)/MDA, and at any time prior to the missed approach point, the pilot may continue the approach below the DA(H) or MDA and touchdown if the following conditions are met:

    a) The aircraft is continuously in a position from which a descent to a landing can be made

    b) The pilot has at least one of the following visual references for the intended runway distinctly visible and identifiable:


Basic indoctrination

• Threshold.

• Threshold markings.

• Threshold lights.

• Runway End Identifier Lights (REIL).

• Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI).

• Touchdown zone, touchdown zone markings.

• Touchdown zone lights.

• Runway or runway markings.

• Runway edge lights.

• Approach Light System (ALS).


Basic indoctrination

c) Sighting of LEAD IN lights is not sufficient to satisfy the requirement for distinct visual reference with the intended landing runway.

• Sighting of the LEAD IN lights is sufficient to continue the approach beyond the MAP.

• Do not descend below the MDA/DDA until, in addition to sighting the LEAD IN lights, the pilot has at least one other distinct visual reference as listed above.

d) The pilot may not descend below 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation using the approach lights as the sole reference unless:

• The red terminating bars or the red side row bars are distinctly visible and identifiable, and

• The flight visibility is not less than the visibility prescribed in the instrument approach procedure being used.


Approach light system configurations

Approach Light System Configurations


Low visibility taxi procedures

Low Visibility Taxi Procedures

Surface Movement Guidance & Control System (SMGCS)

  • SMGCS Low Visibility Taxi Route Chart included in EAG Charts when available for that aerodrome

  • Procedures required when Visibility Less Than 1200ft RVR (CAT II/III Operations)


Recommended actions during low visibility operations

Recommended Actions during Low Visibility Operations

  • Heads Down Activity

  • Plan for optimal timing and execution of aircraft checklists & company Comms

  • Anticipate duration of taxi operation

  • If Possible, crews should only conduct pre-departure checklists when the aircraft has stopped, or while taxiing straight ahead on a taxiway w/o complex intersections


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