Unit 14 stocks
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Unit 14: Stocks. “Stocks are the foundation of cooking” Auguste Escoffier. What Are Stocks?. Flavorful liquids made by simmering bones, vegetables, and aromatics Fundamental for learning about cooking techniques Choose high-quality ingredients Observe all standards for preparation

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Unit 14: Stocks

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Unit 14 stocks

Unit 14: Stocks

“Stocks are the foundation of cooking”

Auguste Escoffier

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Unit 14 3a stocks

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


What are stocks

What Are Stocks?

  • Flavorful liquids made by simmering bones, vegetables, and aromatics

  • Fundamental for learning about cooking techniques

  • Choose high-quality ingredients

  • Observe all standards for preparation

  • Evaluate what you have produced

  • Do not use the stock pot for a garbage pot

  • If you would not consume it, do not put it into the stock pot

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Types of stock

Types of Stock

  • Basic or simple stock

  • White stock

  • Brown stock

  • Fumet

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Basic stock

Basic Stock

  • Examples are chicken, vegetable, fish

  • Constructed by simmering bones and flavoring ingredients

  • Strain, cool, and reserve for sauces, soups, vegetable dishes

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


White stock

White Stock

  • Blanch bones, discard the liquid and start again with fresh, cold water

  • Have a neutral flavor

  • Noticeable body

  • Used for dishes that need body

  • Made from veal or beef bones

  • Neutral stock

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Brown stocks

Brown Stocks

  • Bones and vegetables are roasted

  • Pan is deglazed for the fond

  • Oignon brûlé is added, along with bouquet garni or sachet

  • Tomato paste

  • Cold water or rémouillage

  • Brought to a boil, simmered, and skimmed

  • Drained and cooled, reserved for use

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Fumet shellfish stock

Fumet/Shellfish stock

  • Fish bones, usually from white-fleshed fish

  • Shortest cooking time of all the major stocks

  • White mirepoix cooked with bones over low heat, covered for maximum extraction

  • Shellfish stocks are made from the shells of crustaceans

  • Shells are browned in hot oil instead of roasting

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Preparation

Preparation

  • Equipment is a priority

  • Right size stock pot is important

  • Stock pots should be taller than wide:

    • Smaller surface helps extraction

    • Encourages convection and brings scum to top to be skimmed

    • Should hold all the ingredients to within 3 inches of the top

  • Steam-jacketed kettles are perfect as the heat is very even

  • Additional tools include skimmers, ladles, tasting spoons, cheesecloth, strainers, chill sticks, storage containers

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Ingredients and ratios

Ingredients and Ratios

  • White or beef: 8 lbs of beef or veal bones, 6 qts of water, 1 lb of mirepoix, sachet

  • Poultry is the same

  • Brown is the same with the addition of tomato products

  • Fish: 11 lbs of bones, 5 qts of water, 1 lb of leeks, and mushroom trim, sachet

  • Shellfish, the same as fish with the addition of 2 oz of tomato paste and a standard mirepoix

  • Vegetables: 4 lbs of mixed vegetables, 1 gallon of water, sachet

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Meats and large game stocks

Meats and Large-game Stocks

  • Use meaty bones for a flavorful stock

  • Joints, necks, and knuckle bones are high in collagen, best for body

  • Collagen dissolves into gelatin, giving a rich mouth feel

  • Purchase bones cut in 2–3-inch pieces for easy handling and maximum extraction

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Poultry stock

Poultry Stock

  • Made from any poultry bones

  • Remove the livers as they make the stock bitter and cloudy

  • Browning the bones will give a rich, roasted flavor

  • Cooking without browning gives a pleasant poultry flavor suitable for soups and sauces

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Vegetables for stocks

Vegetables for Stocks

  • Be sure they are fresh well trimmed and clean

  • Avoid starchy vegetables and vegetables that bleed or add too much color

  • Use vegetables in the Brassua family sparingly

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Liquids

Liquids

  • Most common is cold, clean water

  • Rémouillage may be used

  • Vegetable juices

  • Wine

  • These liquids can replace all or some of the fresh water

  • Many fish stocks are half water and half wine

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Flavorings

Flavorings

  • Sachet d’ épices, bouquet garni

  • Mirepoix

  • A little salt

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Preparation of ingredients

Preparation of Ingredients

  • Rinse bones in cold water

  • Always use cold liquid for stock

  • Prepare the freshest vegetables and aromatics, clean them and peel if necessary, then cut/chop

  • Combine and heat to a boil

  • Turn to a simmer and begin skimming

  • Add flavorings when directed by the recipe

  • Strain, use the two-stage cooling method, and store for service

  • NOTE: The larger and denser the bones, the longer the cooking time

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Evaluating for quality

Evaluating for Quality

  • Color and clarity

  • Flavor and aroma

  • Body

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Smothering

Smothering

  • Usually for fish stocks

  • Heat the pot

  • Add oil or butter

  • Add bones and vegetables

  • Stir to heat evenly

  • Cover, and sweat until juices are released

  • Continue with the basic stock method

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Cooling and storing

Cooling and Storing

  • Strain directly into a cooling container, preferably non-aluminum metal

  • Place into ice bath or add chill sticks or both

  • Stir frequently

  • Cool to below 41°F (5°C)

  • Pour into storage containers

  • Cover, label, and date them

  • Reheat to check quality and flavor

  • Chilled stocks should be gelatinous

  • When they get old, the gelatin starts to break down

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Stock related preparations

Stock-Related Preparations

  • Broth is like a stock but made with meatier bones and additional meat

  • Rémouillage is a secondary stock made from previously simmered bones

  • Glaçe de viande, or meat glaze is made by reducing stocks to a fraction of their original volume

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Types of gla e

Types of Glaçe

  • Glaçe de viande is beef

  • Glaçe de veau is veal

  • Glaçe de canard is duck

  • Glaçe de poulet is chicken

  • Glaçe d’ agneau is lamb

  • Glaçe de gibier is game

  • Glaçe de poisson is fish

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Court boullion

Court Boullion

  • Known as quick or short broth

  • Used for submersion poaching

  • Flavored with a light acid

  • Mirepoix of ingredients called for

  • Sachet

  • Can be used as a sauce base

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


Commercial bases

Commercial Bases

  • Not all establishments have the capability to make stocks

  • Bases can be a reasonable substitute or a flavor enhancer for stocks and soups

  • Available in a range of flavors and quality

  • The higher the salt quantity, the lower the flavor quality

  • If you are using them, do not apply them directly, but dissolve them in a little hot liquid, then add them

  • This will prevent a guest from the possibility of getting a lump of base

  • Dissolving the bases also will quickly even out the flavor of the product it is added to

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.


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