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Unit 14: Stocks. “Stocks are the foundation of cooking” Auguste Escoffier. What Are Stocks?. Flavorful liquids made by simmering bones, vegetables, and aromatics Fundamental for learning about cooking techniques Choose high-quality ingredients Observe all standards for preparation

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unit 14 stocks

Unit 14: Stocks

“Stocks are the foundation of cooking”

Auguste Escoffier

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

what are stocks
What Are Stocks?
  • Flavorful liquids made by simmering bones, vegetables, and aromatics
  • Fundamental for learning about cooking techniques
  • Choose high-quality ingredients
  • Observe all standards for preparation
  • Evaluate what you have produced
  • Do not use the stock pot for a garbage pot
  • If you would not consume it, do not put it into the stock pot

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

types of stock
Types of Stock
  • Basic or simple stock
  • White stock
  • Brown stock
  • Fumet

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

basic stock
Basic Stock
  • Examples are chicken, vegetable, fish
  • Constructed by simmering bones and flavoring ingredients
  • Strain, cool, and reserve for sauces, soups, vegetable dishes

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

white stock
White Stock
  • Blanch bones, discard the liquid and start again with fresh, cold water
  • Have a neutral flavor
  • Noticeable body
  • Used for dishes that need body
  • Made from veal or beef bones
  • Neutral stock

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

brown stocks
Brown Stocks
  • Bones and vegetables are roasted
  • Pan is deglazed for the fond
  • Oignon brûlé is added, along with bouquet garni or sachet
  • Tomato paste
  • Cold water or rémouillage
  • Brought to a boil, simmered, and skimmed
  • Drained and cooled, reserved for use

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

fumet shellfish stock
Fumet/Shellfish stock
  • Fish bones, usually from white-fleshed fish
  • Shortest cooking time of all the major stocks
  • White mirepoix cooked with bones over low heat, covered for maximum extraction
  • Shellfish stocks are made from the shells of crustaceans
  • Shells are browned in hot oil instead of roasting

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

preparation
Preparation
  • Equipment is a priority
  • Right size stock pot is important
  • Stock pots should be taller than wide:
    • Smaller surface helps extraction
    • Encourages convection and brings scum to top to be skimmed
    • Should hold all the ingredients to within 3 inches of the top
  • Steam-jacketed kettles are perfect as the heat is very even
  • Additional tools include skimmers, ladles, tasting spoons, cheesecloth, strainers, chill sticks, storage containers

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

ingredients and ratios
Ingredients and Ratios
  • White or beef: 8 lbs of beef or veal bones, 6 qts of water, 1 lb of mirepoix, sachet
  • Poultry is the same
  • Brown is the same with the addition of tomato products
  • Fish: 11 lbs of bones, 5 qts of water, 1 lb of leeks, and mushroom trim, sachet
  • Shellfish, the same as fish with the addition of 2 oz of tomato paste and a standard mirepoix
  • Vegetables: 4 lbs of mixed vegetables, 1 gallon of water, sachet

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

meats and large game stocks
Meats and Large-game Stocks
  • Use meaty bones for a flavorful stock
  • Joints, necks, and knuckle bones are high in collagen, best for body
  • Collagen dissolves into gelatin, giving a rich mouth feel
  • Purchase bones cut in 2–3-inch pieces for easy handling and maximum extraction

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

poultry stock
Poultry Stock
  • Made from any poultry bones
  • Remove the livers as they make the stock bitter and cloudy
  • Browning the bones will give a rich, roasted flavor
  • Cooking without browning gives a pleasant poultry flavor suitable for soups and sauces

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

vegetables for stocks
Vegetables for Stocks
  • Be sure they are fresh well trimmed and clean
  • Avoid starchy vegetables and vegetables that bleed or add too much color
  • Use vegetables in the Brassua family sparingly

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

liquids
Liquids
  • Most common is cold, clean water
  • Rémouillage may be used
  • Vegetable juices
  • Wine
  • These liquids can replace all or some of the fresh water
  • Many fish stocks are half water and half wine

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

flavorings
Flavorings
  • Sachet d’ épices, bouquet garni
  • Mirepoix
  • A little salt

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

preparation of ingredients
Preparation of Ingredients
  • Rinse bones in cold water
  • Always use cold liquid for stock
  • Prepare the freshest vegetables and aromatics, clean them and peel if necessary, then cut/chop
  • Combine and heat to a boil
  • Turn to a simmer and begin skimming
  • Add flavorings when directed by the recipe
  • Strain, use the two-stage cooling method, and store for service
  • NOTE: The larger and denser the bones, the longer the cooking time

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

evaluating for quality
Evaluating for Quality
  • Color and clarity
  • Flavor and aroma
  • Body

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

smothering
Smothering
  • Usually for fish stocks
  • Heat the pot
  • Add oil or butter
  • Add bones and vegetables
  • Stir to heat evenly
  • Cover, and sweat until juices are released
  • Continue with the basic stock method

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

cooling and storing
Cooling and Storing
  • Strain directly into a cooling container, preferably non-aluminum metal
  • Place into ice bath or add chill sticks or both
  • Stir frequently
  • Cool to below 41°F (5°C)
  • Pour into storage containers
  • Cover, label, and date them
  • Reheat to check quality and flavor
  • Chilled stocks should be gelatinous
  • When they get old, the gelatin starts to break down

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

stock related preparations
Stock-Related Preparations
  • Broth is like a stock but made with meatier bones and additional meat
  • Rémouillage is a secondary stock made from previously simmered bones
  • Glaçe de viande, or meat glaze is made by reducing stocks to a fraction of their original volume

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

types of gla e
Types of Glaçe
  • Glaçe de viande is beef
  • Glaçe de veau is veal
  • Glaçe de canard is duck
  • Glaçe de poulet is chicken
  • Glaçe d’ agneau is lamb
  • Glaçe de gibier is game
  • Glaçe de poisson is fish

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

court boullion
Court Boullion
  • Known as quick or short broth
  • Used for submersion poaching
  • Flavored with a light acid
  • Mirepoix of ingredients called for
  • Sachet
  • Can be used as a sauce base

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

commercial bases
Commercial Bases
  • Not all establishments have the capability to make stocks
  • Bases can be a reasonable substitute or a flavor enhancer for stocks and soups
  • Available in a range of flavors and quality
  • The higher the salt quantity, the lower the flavor quality
  • If you are using them, do not apply them directly, but dissolve them in a little hot liquid, then add them
  • This will prevent a guest from the possibility of getting a lump of base
  • Dissolving the bases also will quickly even out the flavor of the product it is added to

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

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