After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world
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After World War 2 the Cold War began and caused tension throughout the world. The USA and the USSR were the two world Superpowers. The USA was a capitalist society with a democracy. The USSR was a communist country with a dictatorship. Both wanted to be the most powerful nation in the world.

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After World War 2 the Cold War began and caused tension throughout the world.

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After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

After World War 2 the Cold War began and caused tension throughout the world.

  • The USA and the USSR were the two world Superpowers.

  • The USA was a capitalist society with a democracy.

  • The USSR was a communist country with a dictatorship.

  • Both wanted to be the most powerful nation in the world.


Nuclear tensions

Nuclear tensions

  • The USA had shown its atomic power when it exploded the A-bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War 2.

  • The USSR was also developing atomic weapons/bombs.

  • The USA and the USSR were in competition with each other to have the best, most powerful weapons in the world – this was called the Arms Race.


Cold war

Cold War?

  • The tension and rivalry between the USA and the USSR was described as the Cold War (1945-1990).

  • There was never a real war between the two sides between 1945 and 1990, but they were often very close to war (Hotspots). Both sides got involved in other conflicts in the world to either stop the spread of communism (USA) or help the spread (USSR).


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

The Cold War [1945-1991]: An Ideological Struggle

Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations[“Iron Curtain”]

US & the Western Democracies

GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world.[George Kennan]

GOAL spread world-wide Communism

  • METHODOLOGIES:

  • Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]

  • Arms Race [nuclear escalation]

  • Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy]  “proxy wars”

  • Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]


After world war 2 the world changed

After World War 2, the world changed!

  • Many countries became communist after World War 2 including:

  • Czechoslovakia (1948)

  • Poland (1947)

  • Hungary (1947)

  • China (1949)

  • Cuba (1959)

  • North Korea (1945)


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

The Bipolarization of Europe


The domino effect

Thedominoeffect

  • The USSR had a lot of influence over many of the new communist countries (especially those in Europe).

  • The USA was very worried that the USSR’s influence over these countries was making the USSR and communism more powerful.

  • The USA did not want communism to spread any further – they were worried about the domino effect (one country becomes communist, then another, then another etc)


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENTGoals Means Actual Application

  • Restorationof the balance of power

Encouragement of self-confidence in nations threatened by Soviet expansion.

Long-term program of U.S. economic assistance [Marshall Plan]

Exploitation of tensions in international communism.

Cooperation with communist regimes; [supporting Titoism in Yugoslavia]

  • Reduction of Soviet ability to project outside power.


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENTGoals Means Actual Application

  • Modification of the Soviet concept of international relations.

Negotiating settlement of outstanding differences.

Using “carrots & sticks’; containing Germany with an embrace and Russia at arms length.


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

National Defense Budget [1940-1964]


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

The Cold War: Roots of the Conflict

Soviet Expansion:

· The Soviet Union occupied most of Eastern Europe by the end of World War II.


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

  • In 1946, Winston Churchill correctly warned that the Soviets were creating an “iron curtain” in Eastern Europe.

Winston Churchill giving the “Iron Curtain” address at Westminster College on March 5, 1946


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

Peep under the Iron curtain

March 6, 1946


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

· By 1948, every Eastern European country was under communist control.

American Response:

· Truman Doctrine – statement of President Truman that promised military and economic support to nations threatened by communism.

  • In 1947, the U.S. gave $400 million to Greece and Turkey in order to help them put down communist revolts.


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

Aid for Europe:

· Secretary of State George Marshall toured Western Europe and witnessed widespread homelessness and famine.

Children in a London suburb, waiting outside the wreckage of what was their home. September 1940.


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

· Marshall, fearing that communist revolts could occur in such an atmosphere, proposed that the U.S. help to rebuild the European economy in what became known as the Marshall Plan.

Nuremberg, Germany, April 20, 1945


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

* The U.S. gave over $12 billion in aid to European countries between 1948 and 1952, helping to improve their economies and lessen the chance of communist revolutions.


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

The Division of Berlin


Focus on berlin

Focus on Berlin

  • After World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops.

Occupation zones after 1945. Berlin is the multinational area within the Soviet zone.


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

Soviet blockade:

East Berlin

West Berlin

East Germany

West Germany

· In June of 1948, the French, British and American zones were joined into the nation of West Germany after the Soviets refused to end their occupation of Germany.


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

· In response, the Soviets cut off West Berlin from the rest of the world with a blockade

Eventual site of the Berlin Wall


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

A huge airlift:

· President Truman decided to avoid the blockade by flying in food and other supplies to the needy people of West Berlin.

· At times, over 5,000 tons of supplies arrived daily.


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

Germany remains divided:

· In May of 1949, Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union ended the blockade.

· The Soviet zone of Germany, including East Berlin, became known as the nation of East Germany.

October, 1949


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

Korean War[1950-1953]


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

Korean War[1950-1953]

Kim Il-Sung

Syngman Rhee

“Domino Theory”


After world war 2 the cold war began and caused tension throughout the world

The Shifting Map of Korea[1950-1953]


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