Introduction to science
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Introduction to Science. Physical Science Chapter 1. Chapter Outline. The Nature of Science How science takes place The branches of science Scientific laws and theories The Way Science Works Science skills and scientific method Units of measurement and unit conversions Organizing Data

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Introduction to Science

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Introduction to science

Introduction to Science

Physical Science Chapter 1

Physical Science Chapter 1


Chapter outline

Chapter Outline

  • The Nature of Science

    • How science takes place

    • The branches of science

    • Scientific laws and theories

  • The Way Science Works

    • Science skills and scientific method

    • Units of measurement and unit conversions

  • Organizing Data

    • Presenting scientific data using graphs and tables

    • Writing numbers in scientific notation

    • Using significant figures

Physical Science Chapter 1


Why it matters

Why it matters

  • The knowledge and skills gained in unit will serve as a foundation for the study of science.

Physical Science Chapter 1


Myths vs facts

Myths vs. Facts

  • Myth: learning is the passive transfer of knowledge

  • Fact: learning is dynamic and involves continuously questioning information

  • Myth: science is a static, faithful copy of the world

  • Fact: science is a human construction based on the most logical interpretation of experiment and theory

Physical Science Chapter 1


Discuss

Discuss

  • Do you understand each of the graphic organizers on page 4?

  • Which type do you like best?

Physical Science Chapter 1


How science takes place

How Science Takes Place

  • How do scientists explore the world?

  • A scientist may perform experiments to find a new aspect of the natural world, to explain a known phenomenon, to check the results of other experiments, or to test the predictions of current theories.

Physical Science Chapter 1


How science take place continued

How Science Take Place, continued

  • Scientists investigate.

  • Scientists plan experiments.

  • Scientists observe.

  • Scientists always test the results.

Physical Science Chapter 1


The branches of science

The Branches of Science

  • How are the many types of science organized?

  • Most of the time, natural science is divided into biological science, physical science and Earth science.

  • science: the knowledge obtained by observing natural events and conditions in order to discover facts and formulate laws or principles that can be verified or tested

Physical Science Chapter 1


The branches of science continued

The Branches of Science, continued

  • The branches of science work together.

    • biological science: the science of living things

      • botany, ecology

    • physical science: the science of matter and energy

      • chemistry: the science of matter and its changes

      • physics: the science of forces and energy

    • earth science: the science of the Earth, the atmosphere, and weather

      • geology, meteorology

Physical Science Chapter 1


Visual concept natural science

Visual Concept: Natural Science

Physical Science Chapter 1


The branches of science continued1

The Branches of Science,continued

  • Science and technology work together.

    • pure science: the continuing search for scientific knowledge

    • Advances in science and technology depend on each other.

  • technology: the application of science for practical purposes

Physical Science Chapter 1


Scientific laws and theories

Scientific Laws and Theories

  • What are scientific theories, and how are they different from scientific laws?

  • Theories explain why something happens, laws explain how something works.

  • law: a descriptive statement or equation that reliably predicts events under certain conditions

  • theory: a system of ideas that explains many related observations and is supported by a large body of evidence acquired through scientific investigation

Physical Science Chapter 1


Scientific laws and theories continued

Scientific Laws and Theories, continued

  • Experimental results support laws and theories.

    • Scientific theories are always being questioned and examined. To be valid, a theory must:

      • explain observations

      • be repeatable

      • be predictable

Physical Science Chapter 1


Scientific laws and theories continued1

Scientific Laws and Theories, continued

  • Mathematics can describe physical events.

    • qualitative statement: describes something with words

    • quantitative statement: describes something with mathematical equations

Physical Science Chapter 1


Scientific laws and theories continued2

Scientific Laws and Theories, continued

  • Theories and laws are always being tested.

  • Models can represent physical events.

    • model: a representation of an object or event that can be studied to understand the real object or event

    • Scientists use conceptual, physical, and computer models to study objects and events.

  • We use models in our everyday lives.

Physical Science Chapter 1


Discuss1

Discuss

  • What are the two branches of physical science?

  • What are three types of models used by scientists?

  • Compare and contrast a scientific law and a scientific theory.

Physical Science Chapter 1


Science skills

Science Skills

  • How can I think and act like scientist?

  • Identifying problems, planning experiments, recording observations, and correctly reporting data are some of the most important science skills.

    • Scientists approach a problem by thinking logically.

Physical Science Chapter 1


Science skills continued

Science Skills, continued

  • Critical thinking helps solve problems logically.

  • critical thinking: the ability and willingness to assess claims critically and to make judgments on the basis of objective and supported reasons

  • Scientists use scientific methods to solve problems.

  • scientific method: a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions

    • The scientific methods are general description of scientific thinking rather than an exact path for scientists to follow.

Physical Science Chapter 1


Science skills continued1

Science Skills, continued

  • Scientists test hypotheses.

  • hypothesis:a possible explanation or answer that can be tested

    • Scientists test a hypothesis by doing a controlled experiment.

    • controlled experiment: an experiment in which the variables that could affect the experiment are kept constant (controlled) except for the one that you want to measure

    • variable:a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis

Physical Science Chapter 1


Science skills continued2

Science Skills, continued

  • Experiments test ideas.

    • No experiment is a failure.

    • The results of every experiment can be used to revise the hypothesis or plan tests of a different variable.

    • Peer-reviewed research: research thathas been reviewed by other scientists

Physical Science Chapter 1


Science skills continued3

Science Skills, continued

  • Scientists use special tools.

  • There are many tools used by scientists for making observations, including

    • telescopes

    • spectroscopes

    • particle accelerators

Physical Science Chapter 1


Units of measurement

Units of Measurement

  • How do scientists measure things?

  • Scientists use standard units of measure that together form the International System of Units, or SI.

Physical Science Chapter 1


Units of measurement continued

Units of Measurement, continued

  • SI units are used for consistency.

    • SI has seven base units.

    • derived units: combinations of the base units

Physical Science Chapter 1


Si le syst me internationale d unit s

SI (Le Système Internationale d’Unités)

Physical Science Chapter 1


Units of measurement continued1

Units of Measurement, continued

  • SI prefixes are for very large and very small measurements.

    • The prefixes are multiples of ten.

    • SI prefixes for large measurements

Physical Science Chapter 1


Units of measurement continued2

Units of Measurement, continued

  • SI prefixes for small measurements

Physical Science Chapter 1


Units of measurement continued3

Units of Measurement, continued

  • Measurements quantify your observations.

  • length: a measure of the straight-line distance between two points

  • mass: a measure of the amount of matter in an object

  • volume: a measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space

  • weight: a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object

Physical Science Chapter 1


Discuss2

Discuss

  • When might a scientist change a hypothesis?

  • A student needs to measure the volume of a liquid. What tool could the student use?

  • Look at Figure 1 on page 14. Answer the question in the caption.

Physical Science Chapter 1


Conversions

Conversions

  • Method that always works:

    • Write conversion factors as fractions that equal 1

    • Multiply by fractions created

    • Repeat until you get the units you want

Physical Science chapter 2


Example

Example

  • Using the conversion factor 1 inch = 2.54 cm, convert 8.5 inches to cm.

  • Write conversion factor as fractions

Physical Science chapter 2


Introduction to science

  • Conversion factor fractions both equal 1

  • We can multiply by them without changing the value

  • To decide which fraction to use, look at units of what is being converted

Physical Science chapter 2


Introduction to science

  • Given: 8.5 inches

  • We want inches to cancel out, so it needs to be in the denominator

Physical Science chapter 2


Example1

Example

  • Using the conversion factor 1 m = 100 cm, convert 3.2 m to cm.

  • Write conversion factor as fractions

Physical Science chapter 2


Introduction to science

  • Given: 3.2 m

  • We want m to cancel out, so it needs to be in the denominator

Physical Science chapter 2


Si shortcut

SI shortcut

  • Measurement in SI is based on multiples of 10.

  • To multiply or divide by multiples of 10, you just move the decimal point.

Physical Science chapter 2


Using the prefix table

Using the prefix table

  • Count the number of columns you move in the table.

  • Move the decimal point the same number of places and in the same direction

    • If converting from a smaller unit to a larger one (like cm to km), move the decimal to the left. (remember “ to Larger; to Left)

    • If converting from a larger unit to a smaller one (like kg to mg), move the decimal to the right.

Physical Science chapter 2


Example2

Example

  • Convert 3.2 m to cm

  • Move two columns to the right.

  • Move decimal point two places to the right.

  • 320 cm

  • How to show your work:

Physical Science chapter 2


Example3

Example

  • Convert 500 mg to kg

  • Move six columns to the left.

  • Move decimal point six places to the left.

  • 0.0005 kg

Physical Science chapter 2


You try

You Try

  • Convert 5 dm to m

  • Move one column to the left.

  • Move decimal point one place to the left.

  • 0.5 m

Physical Science chapter 2


You try1

You Try

  • Convert 567 cm to mm

  • Move one column to the right.

  • Move decimal point one place to the right.

  • 5670 mm

Physical Science chapter 2


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