Advanced technology for the cow of the future. US Patent number 7966971. What is GreenFeed?
US Patent number 7966971
The patented (additional patents pending) GreenFeed system quantitatively and unobtrusively monitors methane (CH4 ), carbon dioxide (CO2), and other selected trace gas mass fluxes emitted from the mouth and nose of cattle during eructation and respiration.
CH4 is a powerful greenhouse gas that is produced by anaerobic digestion in the rumen, and CH4 production represents an energy loss of two to ten percent of a cow’s gross energy intake. Rumen CH4 and CO2 fluxes are also sensitive to rumen function, diet, behavior, health, and genetics. In addition, respiratory CO2 fluxes can be used to estimate energy balances, and efficiency, for individual cattle.
The GreenFeed system makes automated,periodic measurements of CH4 and CO2 fluxes for many individuals several times each day while each animal visits a feeder-station. The periodic daily data, when aggregated over time, allows the user to track and compare emissions for large groups of individual animals. The individual animal data can also be aggregated as totals for the herd.
GreenFeed can measure Methane and Carbon Dioxide emissions in any cattle system!
Portable, Push-Cart GreenFeed for Tie-Stall use
GreenFeed Fitted into a Milking Robot
Portable, solar-powered GreenFeed trailer for use in Pastures.
Layout of the GreenFeed Stand-Alone Feeder Dioxide emissions in any cattle system!
Portable, trailer mounted GreenFeed
How Mass Fluxes are Calculated Using GreenFeed Dioxide emissions in any cattle system!
The mass fluxes of CH4 and CO2 (or any other measured gas) are directly monitored and calculated from measured trace gas concentrations, airflow, and other supporting data collected by GreenFeed. Basically, the measured increase in concentrations compared to the background (ambient) levels are multiplied by the measured airflow rate. Then the ideal gas laws are applied to convert the data to mass fluxes. The math is similar to that used in most chamber studies. However, unlike chamber equations, an additional “capture” rate adjustment factor is applied using data from the GreenFeed tracer release. The correct dimensional conversion factors are also used.
CR= Capture rate adjustment, determined using the tracer
Dt = Time period over which emissions are measured (1 second)
CH4avg = Average concentrations during the measurement period (%)
CH4bkgrnd= Background concentrations of CH4 (%)
Qair = Airflow rate during the measurement period (flow per unit time)
Fc = Dimensional factor
Each Peak is an Eructation
Methane Flux Calculation Example, Average Flux for a Feeding Period
CH4 mass emitted = 0.23 g + 0.26 g + 0.7 g + 0.31 g = 1.07 g
Total Time = 72 s + 79 s + 76 s + 67 s = 294 seconds
CH4 Flux = 1.07 g/294 s= 0.0036 g/s = 13.1 g/hr
Methane Flux Calculation Example, Average Flux from One Cowfor Twelve Feeding Periods over Four Days
Methane and Carbon Dioxide Concentrations for Five Consecutive Feeding Periods from Five Different Cows
Average Monthly Methane Emissions for Several Different Animals
GreenFeed’s unique capabilities facilitate many new research and management possibilities. Monitoring changes in CH4and CO2 emissions from individual animals over time providesimportant information about consumption, health, behavior, and efficiency. Since GreenFeed directly monitors metabolic gas fluxes, GreenFeed data can be used to evaluate and understand how management strategies impact metabolic function and animal efficiency. It is therefore well suited for animal efficiency research applications.
GreenFeed is an ideal tool to accelerate the rising international efforts such as “The Cow of the Future” to improve ruminant efficiency and reduce ruminant methane emissions. GreenFeed measurements are automated and standardized, therefore allowing the direct comparison of research results from around the world.
GreenFeed is also ideal for genomics studies related to methane, carbon dioxide, and ultimately animal efficiency. This research requires quick screening of many animals for desirable traits. GreenFeed is ideal for quickly measuring CH4 and CO2 emissions for large numbers of animals.
GreenFeed has been used as the primary measurement system in experimental trials to determine the effectiveness of specific treatments that reduce methane emissions. Other researchers are using GreenFeed to monitor whole herd CH4 emissions that result from varied management practices.
Our staff is experienced in writing successful scientific proposals. We are happy to collaborate with you to develop proposals that include new, innovative research studies involving GreenFeed.
Dr. Patrick Zimmerman, the founder of C-Lock Inc., has worked more than 35 years in the environmental research field. Before founding C-Lock Inc., Dr. Zimmerman was a professor and the Director of the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. Prior to that, he was a Senior Scientist and Section Head at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. Dr. Zimmerman's work has resulted in the authorship of more than 100 papers in the refereed scientific literature, and in seven granted patents with more pending. Dr. Zimmerman received his Ph.D. in Rangeland Systems Ecology from Colorado State University. His Ph.D. was mentored by, and he worked closely for several years with Dr. Paul Crutzen, one of three co-winners of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Atmospheric Chemistry. Zimmerman’s research has focused on measuring and understanding the complex interactions among the earth's biological, chemical and atmospheric systems. Over his career, Dr. Zimmerman has received dozens of grants and contracts from many federal agencies and he has consulted for several NGOs and businesses. Scott Zimmerman worked in the utility industry for 10 years. He has a Bachelors degree in Civil Engineering from Washington State University, and a Master's Degree in Water Resource Engineering from the University of Iowa. He has significant experience in data analysis and numerical modeling and has worked on several different studies related to increasing power generation efficiency and minimizing ecological impacts of hydro-power generation. Scott has also worked in the environmental compliance and reporting field, and has experience in measuring and reporting pollutant emissions to state and local agencies.
C-Lock Inc. Dioxide emissions in any cattle system!
2951 N Plaza Dr.
Rapid City, SD 57702
2951 N Plaza Dr.
Rapid City, SD 57702
The world’s first online system to measure Methane emissions