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Plastics and Art. Caroline Bunnell Kar-Chan Choong Crystal Hou. Introduction. Art – no single definition, use of skills and imagination in creation of aesthetic objects, environment, or experiences that can be shared with others.

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Plastics and art

Plastics and Art

Caroline Bunnell

Kar-Chan Choong

Crystal Hou


Introduction
Introduction

  • Art – no single definition, use of skills and imagination in creation of aesthetic objects, environment, or experiences that can be shared with others.

  • Plastics – synthetic polymers, dictionary defines it as “capable of being molded or of receiving form.


Why plastics are used
Why plastics are used?

  • Capable beyond the capacity other materials.

  • Give any complex shape.

  • Durable, inexpensive, light in weight,pleasant to handle, not scratch.

  • Color

  • Easy to combine with other materials.


Plastics as art medium
Plastics as Art Medium

  • Decorative Art

  • Architecture

  • Sculpture

  • Art Restoration

  • Modern Paint


Decorative art
Decorative Art

  • Earliest plastics used: Vulcanite, Parkesine and shellac.

  • 1860s, celluloid created to replace ivory.




Nylon
Nylon laminates.

  • Both Nylon-6,6 and Nylon-6 can be extruded into strong fibers, and can be made into textiles similar to silk and cotton, although the most common and sought after use of nylon in the first 30 years after its discovery was as women hosiery and stockings.

  • The reason why nylon makes good fibers because of the hydrogen omitted. There is a hydrogen bond attraction between the N-bonded hydrogen atoms on one chain and the C-bonded oxygen atoms on another.


Architecture
Architecture laminates.

  • Not widely used before ,misconception of plastics, suspicious of longevity.

  • Extensively used now to replace traditional building materials such as protective coating, insulator, damp proof membrane.

  • 1940s, traditional materials cost increased, plastics were manly used in fencing, wall & ceiling claddings & joinery molding.



Centre georges pompidou 1977 paris
Centre Georges Pompidou (1977), Paris resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

  • The external escalator tube are formed from clear plastic panels shaped into curves.


Ibm pavilion
IBM Pavilion resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

  • Designed by Renzo Piano’s Building Workshop in which the strength of formed polycarbonate is cleverly exploited.


Olympic game tent
Olympic Game Tent resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

  • In 1972, Munich.

  • Tension structure designed by Frei Otto.

  • Synthetic fabrics made from nylons, polyester or glass fiber coated with PVC or neoprene.


Fuji pavilion
Fuji Pavilion resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

  • Expo 70 in Osaka.

  • The latter comprise either single later, air-supported membranes that require a constant input of air to maintain internal pressure, or tubular, ribbed air-inflated structure.


Us pavilion
US Pavilion resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

  • Acylic Panel were used within the geodesic dome structure designed by R. Buckminster Fuller for the US pavilion at Expo 67, Montreal.


Disadvantages
Disadvantages resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

  • Flammability and degradation of plastic.

  • Unavoidable environmental concern as energy used and pollution in manufacturing process.


Advantages of using plastics in sculpture
Advantages of Using Plastics in Sculpture resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

  • Versatility

  • Light weight

  • Low cost

  • Uses the same tools as in metals, wood


Polyester resin
Polyester Resin resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

  • Thermoset: hardens when a catalyst is added or heat is applied

  • Manufactured by network formation crosslinking with the use of polyols

  • This plastic can degrade by hydrolysis


Polyester resin cont
Polyester Resin Cont. resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

  • Made by the Artist before use

    - Fillers: Color (pigments), texture (sand, gravel)

  • $39.99 for 1 gal to $129.99 for 5 gal

  • One example of use is in bonded bronze

    - Grounded bronze added to polyester mix to give the appearance of cast bronze


  ”The Thinker” resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

  by Auguste Rodin

In bonded bronze


Epoxy
Epoxy resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

  • Created in a two step process

    - step growth polymerization

    - the molecular weight is then increased in a curing step, reacted with an anhydride


Epoxy cont
Epoxy Cont. resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

  • Thermoset: hardens when a catalyst is added or heat is applied

  • High chemical and corrosion resistance

  • Brittle and high moisture absorption

  • $23.99 for 1 qt. to $59.99 for 1 gal.

  • This is another plastic created by the artist


Epoxy cont1
Epoxy Cont. resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

  • Used to create form through molding

    - a mold is created by clay; epoxy is then applied to mold and then allowed to dry


”Red Sculpture” resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

 By

Gerard BowlesMaterials are epoxy and polyester resins


Acrylic poly methyl methacrylate
Acrylic resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.Poly(methyl-methacrylate)

  • Also known as Plexiglas ®A Trademark of Rohm & Haas Co

  • Free-radical Polymerization

  • Thermoplastic, amorphous

  • Resistant to acid and environmental deterioration


Acrylic cont
Acrylic Cont. resistant polycarbonate sheeting are used – can be heat-formed to curve and shape, high resistance to breakage.

  • Susceptible to thermal degradation by depolymerization

    - chain scission breaks backbone bonds, creates free radicals

  • Rigid, transparent, and shatter resistant

  • Easy to scratch


                           ”Diver”                           ”Diver”

By

Sophie Gal  

Acrylic


Styrofoam polystyrene
Styrofoam                           ”Diver”Polystyrene

  • Created by free radical polymerization

  • Thermoplastic

  • Vulnerable to photooxidative degradation

    - ultraviolet radiation is absorbed and cleavage occurs along main chain and phenyl ring, creates carbonyl-group formation


Styrofoam cont
Styrofoam Cont.                           ”Diver”

  • Creates a brittle and a yellowing of the plastic

  • 2 Cubic Feet $15.00 to 40 Cubic Feet $175.00

  • Used in lost form casting

    - a foam sculpture is set into a sand mold the sand is packed tightly, then a molten metal is added to the mold



Art restoration
Art Restoration

  • Varnish

    - a solution that is made from synthetic or natural resins dissolved in organic solvents, after drying it creates a protective film on the surface.

  • Natural varnishes tend to yellow and darken with time, while synthetics tend not to yellow as quickly


Art restoration cont
Art Restoration Cont.

  • They have differing properties in gloss, durability, flexibility and protection

  • Acrylic varnishes and paints dry quickly and acrylic paint cracks less then oil based paint

  • The use of acrylic varnishes and paints can create problems however


Art restoration cont1
Art Restoration Cont.

  • Acrylic varnishes and paints have a glass transition temperature at or below room temperature

  • They will always be in a soft state

    - easy to damage

    - they collect dirt and dust giving the

    work a “dirty appearance”


Art restoration cont2
Art Restoration Cont.

  • Should acrylic varnishes be applied to acrylic paints?

  • Many artists have insisted their works remain unvarnished

  • If the varnish ever has to be removed in the future the solvent used to remove the varnish would harm the painting


Modern paints paint
Modern Paints “Paint


Pigment can be considered, as an objective of a painting and medium is a means to an end. In order to serve the pigment well and to preserve the life of a painting, all media have to meet certain requirements. These requirements are follow:

  • The medium must have enough transparency in itself and not to change the color of the pigment.


  • The medium should not discolor with age. medium is a means to an end. In order to serve the pigment well and to preserve the life of a painting, all media have to meet certain requirements. These requirements are follow:

  • The medium should protect the pigment by forming a file while the paint go dries.

  • The film should allow for expansion and contracting of the paint caused by temperature and humidity changes so that the paint will not crack.

  • The medium should be a strong binder and it should maintain the adhesion for unlimited time.


Natural and synthetic binders resins

Natural Resins medium is a means to an end. In order to serve the pigment well and to preserve the life of a painting, all media have to meet certain requirements. These requirements are follow:

* Oil and watercolor.

* Used it as interior and exterior house paints by most artists.

Synthetic Resins

* Acrylic and Vinyl.

*Have a number of advantages over natural Resins. (i.e. quick drying time, reduced yellowing with time.)

Natural and Synthetic Binders (Resins)


Synthetic resin become available and have been widely used through out the twentieth century paints. They are…

  • Nitro-cellulose (Pyroxylin)

  • Alkyd

  • Polyvinyl Acetate (PVA)

  • Acrylic


Properties of nitro cellulose
Properties of Nitro-cellulose through out the twentieth century paints. They are…

  • Quick drying time

  • Resoluble and create a thin layer in every application at all time

  • Tendency to become brittle therefore, not recommendable as an outstanding medium for painting

  • Has serious disadvantage for painting because it decomposes with time


Who used nitro cellulose and how they used it

David Alfaro Siqueiros through out the twentieth century paints. They are…

*Claimed to be the first artist who used it as a painting material.

* Used it as in unconventional way such as; staining, dripping, and pouring fluid paint onto a support.

Jackson Pollock

* Dripping paint on the horizontally place canvas.

* His way of painting was different from usual techniques of painting.

Who used Nitro-cellulose and how they used it?


Alkyd
Alkyd through out the twentieth century paints. They are…

  • Is a polyester; formed by reaction of polybasic organic, acids and polyhydric alcohols that become an ester linkage.

  • In 1927, the first oil modified alkyd was introduced into the paint market.

  • In 1940s, alkyd resin was introduced to the industry and household paint formulation.



Who used alkyd and how they used it
Who used Alkyd and how they used it? not succeeded; because of longer drying time and only give limited success in the artists’ paint market.

  • Pablo Picasso was the most famous artist who worked with alkyd in his painting, house painting, and boat painting.

  • Many artists used house paint rather than artist’s paint because artist’s paint was expensive and often unavailable in market.

  • Other artists such as Willem de Kooning, Australian artist Sidney Nolan, Peter Blake, and Frank Stella used Alkyd in their career.


Alkyd1
Alkyd not succeeded; because of longer drying time and only give limited success in the artists’ paint market.

  • Gillian Ayres, Distillation 1959, oil and alkyd house paint on hardboard (1959).


Polyvinyl acetate pva
Polyvinyl Acetate not succeeded; because of longer drying time and only give limited success in the artists’ paint market.(PVA)

  • In 1930s, PVA first appear in paint market.

  • There are two kinds; solution and emulsion form of PVA.

  • The solution form PVA gets dry easily by evaporation of solvent and much faster than alkyd oil paint.

  • The emulsion forms of PVA are not dissolved in water but dispersed in water.


  • The major advantage of the emulsion are shorter drying time and water is the main component in emulsions so that it can reduce the amount of organic solvent and strong odor.

  • A number of artists were used PVA emulsion in their paintings such as Alfred Duca, Bridget Riley and Kenneth Noland.

  • However, it did not give much success to those artists because of a very limited color range and the introduction of the quality acrylic emulsion to the artists.


PVA and water is the main component in emulsions so that it can reduce the amount of organic solvent and strong odor.

  • Sidney Nolan, Woman and Billabong, 1957, PVA emulsion on hardboard.


Acrylic
Acrylic and water is the main component in emulsions so that it can reduce the amount of organic solvent and strong odor.

  • Acrylic becomes widely used in 1930s.

  • Acrylic is the newest painting medium and has the advantages flexibility & brighter colors.

  • Acrylic applications are waterproof when dry.

  • The first acrylic paint was known as Magna and is the best known of the acrylic solution range of paint.


  • The first artist acrylic emulsion paint was known as Liquitex.

  • Liquitex did not success in the market because it was thin and runny.

  • Acrylic emulsion paints are not much different to the PVA emulsion such as “they can be thinned with water when wet, but cannot be re-dissolved in water once dried.”.

  • The significant feature of acrylic was the ability of reducing wrinkles while the painting was drying.


Acrylic and pva
Acrylic and PVA Liquitex.

  • Kenneth Noland, Gift 1961-2, acrylic solution and PVA emulsion on canvas.


Acrylic1
Acrylic Liquitex.

  • Helen Frankenthaler, The Bay 1963, acrylic on canvas. The Detroit Institute of Arts.


Conclusion
Conclusion Liquitex.

  • Polymers can be used in many different applications in art from architecture to paints.

  • Its versatility and properties offer durable and low cost.

  • They can offer the artist or designer different avenues for creating and design.

  • With the rapidly expansion of study in polymers, plastic is potentially used as an alternative material for art with its own unique freedom of expression.


References
References: Liquitex.

1. Beck, James: Art Restoration: the Culture, the Business and the Scandal, W.W. Norton, New York, 1996.

2. Faulkner, Ziegfeld: Art Today, an Introduction to the Fine and Functional Arts, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1956.

3. Fried, Joel: Polymer Science and Technology, Prentice Hall, New York, 1995.

4. Newman, Thelma R.: Plastics as an Art Form, Chilton Book Company, Philadelphia, 1969.


5. Padovano, Anthony: Liquitex.The Process of Sculpture, Doubleday and Company, Inc., New York, 1981.

6. Smithsonian Center for Material Research and Education. Ed. A.B. N’Gadi. 2001. 24, March 2001. http://www.si.edu/scmre/

7. Williams, Arthur: Sculpture Technique Form Content, Davis Publications, Inc., Massachusetts, 1995.

8. Crook, Jo, Tom Learner, “the impact of MODERN PAINTS”, Watson-Guptill Publication, N.Y, 2000.

9. Woody, Jr. R. O., “Painting with Synthetic Media”, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, N.Y., 1965.


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