Ir the new world of international relations l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 15

IR: The New World of International Relations PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 156 Views
  • Updated On :
  • Presentation posted in: General

IR: The New World of International Relations. Michael G. Roskin and Nicholas O. Berry Chapter 14 Nuclear Politics: The Bomb Is Here to Stay. Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Nuclear Weapons. Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Nuclear Destruction.

Related searches for IR: The New World of International Relations

Download Presentation

IR: The New World of International Relations

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Ir the new world of international relations l.jpg

IR: The New World of International Relations

Michael G. Roskin and Nicholas O. Berry

Chapter 14

Nuclear Politics:

The Bomb Is Here to Stay

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


Nuclear weapons l.jpg

Nuclear Weapons

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


Nuclear destruction l.jpg

Nuclear Destruction

Hiroshima, 1945

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


Weapon of war early history l.jpg

Weapon of War: Early History

  • Scientists urged FDR to develop atomic bomb during World War II; feared Nazis would get it first

  • Truman had no problem using bomb on Japan; wanted to avoid bloody invasion of Japanese home islands

  • After war, Truman wanted to put bomb technology under international control

  • Soviets refused; would give US permanent lead

  • With Cold War’s onset and Soviets getting bomb, Truman recognized bomb’s deterrent value and created B-52 strike capability

  • John Foster Dulles, Eisenhower’s Secretary of State, urged “massive retaliation” as main US deterrent of USSR

  • Avoided costly, large conventional forces; small US forces in Europe were “trip wire” against Soviet attack

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


Nuclear and thermonuclear weapons l.jpg

Nuclear and Thermonuclear Weapons

  • Nuclear bombs – those dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki – operate by fission, splitting uranium atoms

  • U-235 refined in minute quantities from ore to a purity of 90% or more: weapons grade uranium

  • A conventional explosive compresses U-235 core in bomb, setting off chain reaction of neutrons causing detonation

  • Thermonuclear bombs operate by fusion: a nuclear explosion fuses deuterium (heavy hydrogen atoms) into helium atoms

  • Thermonuclear explosions are many times more powerful than nuclear ones

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


Alliance building l.jpg

Alliance Building

  • Nuclear weapons helped US and USSR build alliances in Cold War

  • They could provide “extended deterrence,” a nuclear umbrella to protect allies

  • US alliances included NATO, ANZUS (Australia and New Zealand), and SEATO for Southeast Asia

  • These alliances provided superpowers access to, and influence over, allies’ foreign policy processes

  • JFK’s innovation of “flexible response” suggested US might choose when and where to use deterrent; France left NATO as a result to build its own nuclear deterrent

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


International prestige l.jpg

International Prestige

  • Possession of nuclear weapons accords a country prestige internationally

    --France’s Charles de Gaulle used his force de frappe to restore France’s prestige, lost by rise of America

  • Other countries will be more cautious and accommodating in response

  • Having nukes may build political support at home

  • But, some countries have found obtaining nukes not worth the cost or not needed regionally (South Africa, Brazil)

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


Nuclear strategies l.jpg

Nuclear Strategies

  • Second-Strike Capability: When a state can absorb a first strike and retaliate with “unacceptable damage”

  • First-Strike Capability: When a state thinks it can destroy an enemy’s second-strike capability

  • Countervalue Attack: Targeting the economy and population of an enemy

  • Counterforce Attack: Targeting an enemy’s military forces, especially missile sites

  • Extended Deterrence: A superpower protects allies by treating an attack on them as an attack on itself

  • Minimum Deterrence: Having even a few nukes for a credible second-strike capability

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


Nuclear proliferation great powers l.jpg

Nuclear Proliferation – Great Powers

  • Early development of nukes by Britain, France, and China gave prestige and access to nuclear policy decisions by superpowers

  • France feared US nuclear umbrella might not be applied to France if Soviets attacked in Europe

  • Mao had conflicts with Khrushchev and Brezhnev, who viewed China’s goals risky, and wanted separate defense against US (and possibly against Soviet Union)

  • Great powers with nukes have much to lose by threatening their use; leaders tend to be cautious

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


Disarmament l.jpg

Disarmament

Bush and Putin exchange treaty reducing nuclear warheads

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


Nuclear non proliferation treaty l.jpg

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

  • Superpowers had common interest in preventing proliferation of nukes: maintain their prestige and control of policy

  • Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and other arms control agreements’ advantages:

    (1) Decrease threats and increase cooperation

    (2) Enhance deterrence – neither side has enough for first strike

    (3) Reduce costs for maintaining expensive armaments

    (4) Stabilize distribution of power – Superpowers keep their advantage and control

    (5) May aid in keeping nukes from terrorists, who might more easily get them from weak, or cooperating, states (Pakistan, N. Korea)

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


Nuclear proliferators smaller states l.jpg

Nuclear Proliferators – Smaller States

  • Significant non-signers of NPT: Cuba, South Africa, Israel, India, Pakistan, Brazil, Argentina

  • India and Pakistan have fought three wars, have major disputed claims over Kashmir; nukes important part of defense strategy

  • Argentina and Brazil engaged in prestige competition over developing nukes; civilian regimes decided too costly, and unnecessary in Latin American region

  • South Africa’s nuclear program ended to prevent weapons being turned over to future black government

  • Israel allegedly has nukes, for defense in midst of hostile Arab region

  • With break-up of USSR, some nuclear material has reached international market; fear it may fall into hands of terrorists

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


Nuclear powers l.jpg

Nuclear Powers

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


Outcome of nuclear weapons use l.jpg

Outcome of Nuclear Weapons’ Use

  • Political functions of nukes would end; deterrence failed

  • Disarming attacks more likely, to prevent further attacks

  • Economies would collapse from hitting key targets, such as Persian Gulf oil facilities

  • War would escalate, with other states drawn in

  • Nuclear decapitation would knock out countries’ political leadership, hindering settlement of conflicts

  • Nuclear winter result, a planetary ecological disaster, likely destroying modern civilization

  • War would be hard to end; could go on for years, decades

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


Nuclear outcome l.jpg

Nuclear Outcome

Hiroshima’s Peace Park diorama of atomic blast effects

Copyright @ 2010, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.


  • Login