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Introduction. Introduction Modular 5: Sensation. Electric Billboard in the Brain. Can Katie see without her eyes? Katie at the age of 22 Age 42 C olors of light B rightness and size Rectangular grid and patterns O fficially blind. Three Characteristics of All Senses.

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introduction

Introduction

Introduction

Modular 5: Sensation

electric billboard in the brain
Electric Billboard in the Brain
  • Can Katie see without her eyes?
    • Katie at the age of 22
    • Age 42
    • Colors of light
    • Brightness and size
    • Rectangular grid and patterns
    • Officially blind
three characteristics of all senses
Three Characteristics of All Senses
  • Eyes, nose, skin, and tongue
  • All senses follow three characteristics:
    • Transduction
    • Adaptation–
    • Sensation versus perceptions–
      • Sensations
      • Perceptions
stimulus light waves
Stimulus: Light Waves
  • Receive a certain stimulus
  • Radio waves not the right length
  • Wave length that can be seen
stimulus light waves1
Stimulus: Light Waves
  • Invisible– too short–
  • Visible spectrum
  • Bounce off the object an return to your eyes
stimulus light waves2
Stimulus: Light Waves
  • Invisible—too long–
  • Stimulus-
structure and function
Structure and Function
  • A giraffe?
  • Gather and focus light waves and transforms light waves into impulses
  • Image reverse–
  • Light Waves
structure and function2
Structure and Function
  • Iris—
    • Dim light
    • Bright light
    • Pigment or color of eye
structure and function3
Structure and Function
  • Lens—
    • Distant objects
    • Near objects
  • Retina–
eyeball s shape and laser eye surgery
Eyeball’s Shape and Laser Eye Surgery
  • Normal vision–
  • Nearsighted–
  • Farsighted–
  • Eye Surgery– LASIK
retina miniature camera computer
Retina: Miniature Camera—Computer
  • Video camera and transduction
  • Retina three layers of cells
retina miniature camera computer1
Retina: Miniature Camera—Computer
  • 60 million rods
  • Dimly lit areas
retina miniature camera computer2
Retina: Miniature Camera—Computer
  • 3 million cones
  • Three chemicals (osins)
  • Wired individually
retina miniature camera computer3
Retina: Miniature Camera—Computer
  • Transduction
  • Tiny electrical force
retina miniature camera computer4
Retina: Miniature Camera—Computer
  • Nerve impulses generated in ganglion cells
  • Blind spot
  • Visual areas of the brain
visual pathways eye to brain
Visual Pathways: Eye to Brain
  • Optic nerve
  • Hypothalamus
  • Thalamus
visual pathways eye to brain1
Visual Pathways: Eye to Brain
  • Primary visual cortex
  • 25% of the cortex
  • Visual cortex responds
visual pathways eye to brain2
Visual Pathways: Eye to Brain
  • Simple visual sensations
  • Visual association areas
visual pathways eye to brain3
Visual Pathways: Eye to Brain
  • Primary visual cortex to association areas
  • Meaningful image
  • Visual Agnosia
visual pathways eye to brain4
Visual Pathways: Eye to Brain
  • Reading, writing, and perceiving objects, animals, people and colors
color vision
Color: Vision
  • Cataracts
  • “Can’t imagine what colors are until you’ve seen them”
  • Visual system into what you see as color
making colors from wavelengths
Making Colors from Wavelengths
  • 1. Sunlight and the visible spectrum
  • 2. Light spectrum or a rain drop
  • 3. Our visual system
    • Humans see shorter wavelengths
    • Trichromatic and opponent process theories
trichromatic theory
Trichromatic Theory
  • Trichromatic
  • Blue, green, and red
  • Wavelengths are absorbed by their specific cone
  • Genes affect the ability you have to see shades
opponent process theory
Opponent-Process Theory
  • Afterimage
  • Red-green and blue-yellow
  • Opponent-process theory
theories combined
Theories Combined
  • Both the opponent-process and trichromatic theories
  • Trichromatic different kinds of cones
  • Opponent-process theory which involves pairs of colors
  • Nerve impulses to the visual cortex
color blindness
Color Blindness
  • 1 in 20 people in America
  • Color Blindness
  • There are several kinds of color blindness
    • Monochromats–
    • Dichromats--
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