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Introduction. Introduction Modular 5: Sensation. Electric Billboard in the Brain. Can Katie see without her eyes? Katie at the age of 22 Age 42 C olors of light B rightness and size Rectangular grid and patterns O fficially blind. Three Characteristics of All Senses.

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Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

Modular 5: Sensation


Electric billboard in the brain
Electric Billboard in the Brain

  • Can Katie see without her eyes?

    • Katie at the age of 22

    • Age 42

    • Colors of light

    • Brightness and size

    • Rectangular grid and patterns

    • Officially blind


Three characteristics of all senses
Three Characteristics of All Senses

  • Eyes, nose, skin, and tongue

  • All senses follow three characteristics:

    • Transduction

    • Adaptation–

    • Sensation versus perceptions–

      • Sensations

      • Perceptions


Stimulus light waves
Stimulus: Light Waves

  • Receive a certain stimulus

  • Radio waves not the right length

  • Wave length that can be seen


Stimulus light waves1
Stimulus: Light Waves

  • Invisible– too short–

  • Visible spectrum

  • Bounce off the object an return to your eyes


Stimulus light waves2
Stimulus: Light Waves

  • Invisible—too long–

  • Stimulus-


Structure and function
Structure and Function

  • A giraffe?

  • Gather and focus light waves and transforms light waves into impulses

  • Image reverse–

  • Light Waves



Structure and function2
Structure and Function

  • Iris—

    • Dim light

    • Bright light

    • Pigment or color of eye


Structure and function3
Structure and Function

  • Lens—

    • Distant objects

    • Near objects

  • Retina–


Eyeball s shape and laser eye surgery
Eyeball’s Shape and Laser Eye Surgery

  • Normal vision–

  • Nearsighted–

  • Farsighted–

  • Eye Surgery– LASIK


Retina miniature camera computer
Retina: Miniature Camera—Computer

  • Video camera and transduction

  • Retina three layers of cells


Retina miniature camera computer1
Retina: Miniature Camera—Computer

  • 60 million rods

  • Dimly lit areas


Retina miniature camera computer2
Retina: Miniature Camera—Computer

  • 3 million cones

  • Three chemicals (osins)

  • Wired individually


Retina miniature camera computer3
Retina: Miniature Camera—Computer

  • Transduction

  • Tiny electrical force


Retina miniature camera computer4
Retina: Miniature Camera—Computer

  • Nerve impulses generated in ganglion cells

  • Blind spot

  • Visual areas of the brain


Visual pathways eye to brain
Visual Pathways: Eye to Brain

  • Optic nerve

  • Hypothalamus

  • Thalamus


Visual pathways eye to brain1
Visual Pathways: Eye to Brain

  • Primary visual cortex

  • 25% of the cortex

  • Visual cortex responds


Visual pathways eye to brain2
Visual Pathways: Eye to Brain

  • Simple visual sensations

  • Visual association areas


Visual pathways eye to brain3
Visual Pathways: Eye to Brain

  • Primary visual cortex to association areas

  • Meaningful image

  • Visual Agnosia


Visual pathways eye to brain4
Visual Pathways: Eye to Brain

  • Reading, writing, and perceiving objects, animals, people and colors


Color vision
Color: Vision

  • Cataracts

  • “Can’t imagine what colors are until you’ve seen them”

  • Visual system into what you see as color


Making colors from wavelengths
Making Colors from Wavelengths

  • 1. Sunlight and the visible spectrum

  • 2. Light spectrum or a rain drop

  • 3. Our visual system

    • Humans see shorter wavelengths

    • Trichromatic and opponent process theories


Trichromatic theory
Trichromatic Theory

  • Trichromatic

  • Blue, green, and red

  • Wavelengths are absorbed by their specific cone

  • Genes affect the ability you have to see shades


Opponent process theory
Opponent-Process Theory

  • Afterimage

  • Red-green and blue-yellow

  • Opponent-process theory


Theories combined
Theories Combined

  • Both the opponent-process and trichromatic theories

  • Trichromatic different kinds of cones

  • Opponent-process theory which involves pairs of colors

  • Nerve impulses to the visual cortex


Color blindness
Color Blindness

  • 1 in 20 people in America

  • Color Blindness

  • There are several kinds of color blindness

    • Monochromats–

    • Dichromats--


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