ATP
Download
1 / 31

ATP - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 181 Views
  • Uploaded on

ATP. Why do we use it for Energy?. ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate. Consists of Adensosine + 3 Phosphates Highly unstable molecule 3 phosphates each highly negative repel each other (like the wrong end of a magnet)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' ATP' - minty


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

ATP

Why do we use it for Energy?


Atp adenosine triphosphate
ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate

  • Consists of Adensosine + 3 Phosphates

  • Highly unstable molecule

  • 3 phosphates each highly negative repel each other (like the wrong end of a magnet)

  • Hence a phosphate group is removed through hydrolysis energy is released (-7.3 kcal/mole) and breaks down into the more stable molecule ADP.


ATP: Pictures

Where does the Negativity come from? Oxygen

I thinkhe’s a bitunstable…don’t you?

Oxygen


How does atp store energy
How does ATP store energy?

Each negative PO4 more difficult to add

a lot of stored energy in each bond

most energy stored in 3rd Pi = releases energy ∆G = -7.3 kcal/mole

3rd Pi is hardest group to keep bonded to molecule

Bonding of negative Pi groups is unstable

spring-loaded

Pi groups “pop” off easily & release energy

O–

O–

O–

O–

O–

O–

O–

O–

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

–O

–O

–O

O–

O–

O–

–O

–O

–O

O–

O–

O–

–O

–O

O–

O–

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

ADP

AMP

ATP

Instability of its P bonds makes ATP an excellent energy donor


Atp adp cycle
ATP / ADP cycle

+

Pi

ATP

  • Can’t store ATP

    • good energy donor, not good energy storage

      • too reactive

      • transfers Pi too easily

      • only short term energy storage

        • carbohydrates & fats are long term energy storage

cellularrespiration

7.3 kcal/mole

ADP

A working muscle recycles over 10 million ATPs per second

Whoa!Pass methe glucose

(and O2)!


Completely off topic
Completely off Topic

  • A Reminder: How can you remember what happens in Oxidation or Reduction?

  • OIL RIG

  • Oxidation is Loss of Electrons (or H)

  • Reduction is Gain of Electrons (or H)

  • PS. Making ATP is phosphorylation not Oxidation or reduction.


Cellular respiration c 6 h 12 o 6 o 2 co 2 h 2 o energy

CELLULAR RESPIRATIONC6H12O6 + O2→ CO2 + H2O + energy


What questions should you be able to answer at the end of the unit
What questions should you be able to answer at the end of the unit?

  • Why do you breath in oxygen?

  • What do you breath out and why?

  • How do mitochondria work?

  • What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

  • What are the steps of Glycolysis?

  • What are the steps of Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration?


Cellular respiration
CELLULAR RESPIRATION the unit?

  • The complex process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds is known as cellular respiration.


2 the unit?

2 NADH + 2H+

pyruvic acid

36


Anaerobic respiration
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION the unit?

  • When O2 is absent, respiration is anaerobic and includes glycolysis and fermentation.


Glycolysis
GLYCOLYSIS the unit?

  • Glycolysis is a pathway in which one molecule of glucose is oxidized to produce two molecules of pyruvic acid.

  • Takes place in the cytosol of the cell.

  • Fig 9.8 in your book!


Glycolysis continued
Glycolysis the unit?Continued

  • The endproducts are 2 NADH, and 4 ATP

  • First 3 steps of Glycolysis are endothermic, require energy in the form of 2 ATP. Subsequent steps are exothermic.

  • What is the Net ATP produced by Glycolysis?

Overview of Glycolysis


  • 2 ATP the unit?

  • +

  • 4 ATP

  • 2 ATP per molecule of glucose.


What happens if you have too much atp
What happens if you have too much ATP? the unit?

Allosteric

Enzyme

  • Allosteric Inhibition

  • PFK (Phosphofructokinase): Enzyme used in step 3 of glycolysis to create the 6 carbon sugar that breaks apart into P-C-C-C C-C-C-P

  • Too much energy? ATP binds to the PFK halting the steps of gycolysis.

  • PS this is not in your book from what I’ve seen, but it’s in all the cheat manuals. So you may need to know it!


Fermentation 9 5 pg 177
FERMENTATION the unit?(9.5, pg 177)

  • When there is no oxygen available, the products of glycolysis enter fermentation where no further ATP is yielded however NAD is regenerated and is available for glycolysis again.


Figure 9.18 Pg. 178 the unit?

Figure 9.18 Fermentation, Pg. 178



Energy yield
ENERGY YIELD the unit?


Who uses anaerobic respiration
Who uses Anaerobic Respiration? the unit?

  • You do with Aerobic Respiration

  • Some bacteria survive on it (Botulinum & Tetnus) and can not survive in the presence of O2. They are Obligate anaerobes.

  • Facultative anaerobes can tolerate oxygen: Staph, E.Coli

  • Anaerobic R. began Millions of years ago when earths atm. Had no O2.


Aerobic respiration
AEROBIC RESPIRATION the unit?

  • If oxygen is available, pyruvic acid enters the pathways of aerobic respiration: the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain.

Figure 9.11 Pg. 170-172


Overview of aerobic respiration
OVERVIEW OF AEROBIC the unit?RESPIRATION

  • In the Krebs cycle, the oxidation of glucose that began with glycolysis is completed and NAD is reduced to NADH.

  • In the electron transport chain, NADH is used to make ATP.

  • Prokaryotes: Cytosol

  • Eukaryotes: Mitochondrial Matrix

The

Mitochondria

At Work


Making

Vinegar


The krebs cycle citric acid cycle
The Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle to form acetyl coenzyme A.

  • Cyclic process that produces the following products: CO2, ATP, NADH + H+, and FADH2.

  • CO2 is released.

  • NADH + H+, and FADH2 go to the electron transport chain.

Krebs

Cycle

At the

Bottom


Electron transport chain figure 9 13 pg 173
ELECTRON TRANSPORT to form acetyl coenzyme A.CHAIN Figure 9.13 Pg. 173

  • In prokaryotes, the electron transport chain lines the cell membrane.

  • ATP is produced by the electron transport chain when NADH and FADH2 release hydrogen atoms, regenerating NAD and FAD.

E.T.C.

revisited

Electron Transport

Chain


Virtual to form acetyl coenzyme A.

Cell

ETC


Atp synthase
ATP synthase to form acetyl coenzyme A.

Enzyme channel in mitochondrial membrane

permeable to H+

H+ flow down concentration gradient

flow like water over water wheel

flowing H+ cause change in shape of ATP synthase enzyme

powers bonding of Pi to ADP:ADP + Pi ATP

Virtual

Cell

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

rotor

rod

+

P

catalytic

head

H+

ADP

ATP

But… How is the proton (H+) gradient formed?


Two types of phosphorylation

Oxidative Phosphorylation to form acetyl coenzyme A.

Occurs during chemiosmosis

90% of ATP produced in the ETC.

Substrate-level phosphorylation

When the enzyme kinase transfers a phosphate from a substrate directly to ADP.

In Glycolysis and Krebs cycle. Fig 9.7

Two types of phosphorylation

Turn your flashcard paper over to Table 5.1 to review ATP allotments.


Why do we study glycolysis
Why Do We Study Glycolysis? to form acetyl coenzyme A.

  • New Research

  • And…

HHMI

Cancer Research

Importance

Of

Studying

Glycolysis


New research to find the cure for cancer
New Research to find the Cure for Cancer. to form acetyl coenzyme A.

  • P53: Using Viruses

  • Stopping Glycolysis

    • Cancer cells do not use Citric Acid Cycle or Electron Transport chain-due to Hypoxic (No/Low Oxygen) Conditions it creates

    • Hypoxia good for Cancer,bad for body cells

    • Cancer Cells glycolysis becomes ultra efficient

P53


ad