Sentence patterns
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SENTENCE PATTERNS. Sentence Parts. Subject – verb – direct object or subject complement -- modifiers 1 A genome is all the genetic material in the chromosomes of an organism. 2 The human genome includes about three billion base pairs that make up human DNA.

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SENTENCE PATTERNS

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SENTENCEPATTERNS


Sentence Parts

Subject – verb – direct object or subject complement -- modifiers

1 A genome is all the genetic material in the chromosomes of an organism.

2 The human genomeincludes about three billion base pairs that make up human DNA.

3 The Human Genome Project, completed in 2003, was a 13-year, international effort to identify the 20,000-25,000 human genes and make them accessible for further biological study.

4 This researchhas catalyzed biotechnology.


Sentence Patterns

Subject – verb – direct object or subject complement

  • The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell by 53 points. S-V

  • The studentsworked the algebra problems. S-V-DO

  • A virusis a pathogen. S-V-SCNOR

    All membersarepresent. S-V-SCA

  • Jane’s bossofferedher a raise. S-V-IO-DO

  • I consideryou my best friend. S-V-DO-DOCA OR

    The womenfound the candidate’s languageoffensive. S-V-DO-DOCA


1. S + V

The subject is followed by an intransitive verb , which takes no direct object.

(Note: In the diagrams, “NP” = noun phrase.)

Even if the verb is followed by a prepositional phrase, the verb is still intransitive if it does not take a direct object. Ex:The childrenare sleeping in the next room.

Whois calling at this hour?


My brother is taking his wife on a cruise.

2. S+ V + D O

The subject is followed by a transitive verb, which has a direct object.

Note: There are now 2 nouns in the sentence: NP1= subject; NP2= direct object.


3a. S + LV + SC

A linking verb is followed by a subject complement (adjective) that describes the subject (SCA).

The SCA may be a prepositional phrase.


3b. S + LV + SCN

A linking verb is followed by a subject complement (noun) that renames the subject (SCN).

Note: The second noun, the subject complement, is still designated as NP1 because it refers to the same thing (Mr. James = teacher).


3c. S + LV + ADV(Time/Place)

A linking verbmay also be followed by an adverb indicating where or when.

  • The adverbial indicating where or when may be a prepositional phrase.


Grandma’s house always smelled like moth balls.

NP1 LV ADJ subject subjective complement

The air feels wintry today.

NP1 LV ADJ

subjectsubjective complement

More Linking Verbs

  • The linking verb may be a word similar to “be,” such as “seem,” “appear,” “become,” or “looks.”

  • Or, it may be a verb relating to the senses.


4. S + V + IO + DO

A transitive verb may be followed by an indirect object and then a direct object.

A test for an indirect object is to put the DO first and the IO after it with “to” or “for.” Ex. Smithers gave a raise to the employees.

Note: There are now 3 different nouns in the sentence: NP1, NP2, and NP3.


5a. S + V + DO + DOCA

The transitive verb is followed by a direct object, and the direct object is followed by an object complement (adjective or noun).

The DOCA describes the direct object.


5b. S + V + DO + DOCN

The DOCN renames the direct object.

Note: Just like the SCN, the DOCN refers to the same thing: Jacobsen=friend.


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