Instructional goal
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Instructional Goal. SWBAT identify the liberal and conservative point of view on several “hot button” issues. Answer the following QUESTIONS. Which principle of democracy would you be willing to disregard and why?

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Instructional goal

Instructional Goal

  • SWBAT identify the liberal and conservative point of view on several “hot button” issues.


Answer the following questions

Answer the following QUESTIONS

  • Which principle of democracy would you be willing to disregard and why?

  • Worth of individual, equality of all persons, majority rule/minority right, necessity of compromise, and individual freedoms

  • YOU ARE DIRECTING THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOR A DAY, YOU HAVE 1 CHANCE TO CHANGE AND IMPROVE THE LIVES OF ALL AMERICANS, WHAT WOULD DO, HOW AND WHY?


The political spectrum

The Political Spectrum

  • Line yourselves up based on your scores from the most Liberal to the most Conservative.

  • Get yourselves into groups of 4 based on the three people that scored closest to you on the spectrum.

  • Find the average score for your group.

  • Discuss which issues from the quiz you were most passionate about and why. Record them.


The political spectrum1

The Political Spectrum

  • Review the 2 essay questions you answered at the start of class and the activity from Monday.

  • Share your opinions and see if there was a generally uniform agreement that you all had on any of your answers and if there were any answers that you had very different opinions on.

  • Summarize the common beliefs and anything you differed on


The political spectrum2

The Political Spectrum

  • Volunteer one of the statements/issues you agreed strongly on to discuss with class.

  • Volunteer one of the statements/issues you disagreed strongly on to discuss with class.


Participation

PARTICIPATION

  • DO YOU BELIEVE YOU WOULD SCORE ANY DIFFERENTLY TODAY, IF YOU TOOK THE QUIZ AGAIN? EXPLAIN


Unit intro

UNIT INTRO

  • UNIT 2  FOUNDATIONS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT

  • INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL

  • IDENTIFY AND EXPLAIN THE VARIOUS INFLUENCES ON COLONIAL GOVERNMENT.


Ancient plans of government

ANCIENT PLANS OF GOVERNMENT

  • EgyptianGovernment was dominated

    by a single man, the Pharaoh. The

    people believed that the king was more than a man, however, but that he was a god. This gave him absolute control over the affairs of the Empire and its people.

  • People lived to serve

    the Pharaoh.


Ancient plans of government1

ANCIENT PLANS OF GOVERNMENT

  • Greeks had a lot of different

    kinds of governments,

    because there were many

    different city-states in ancient

    Greece, and they each had

    their own government. Each

    city state was isolated by

    geographic features.


Ancient plans of government2

ANCIENT PLANS OF GOVERNMENT

In 510 BC, the city-state of Athens created the first democratic government, and soon other Greek city-states imitated them. Even city-states that weren't Greek, like Carthage and Rome, experimented with giving the poor people more power at this time.

  • Trade and conquest spread the concept of democracy.


Ancient plans of government3

ANCIENT PLANS OF GOVERNMENT

  • The Roman government (in its entire history from founding to fall) was a strange mix of a democracy and a republic. An interesting fact is that the people of Rome took many of their ideas of government from the Ancient Greeks.


Ancient plans of government4

ANCIENT PLANS OF GOVERNMENT

The Roman Republic ( based on representation) developed to deal with the large area they governed.

Of course, it did

Fall!


Ancient plans of government dark ages back to people serving government

ANCIENT PLANS OF GOVERNMENT-DARK AGES – BACK TO PEOPLE SERVING GOVERNMENT


Enlightenment renaissance government back to serving people

ENLIGHTENMENT/RENAISSANCE – GOVERNMENT BACK TO SERVING PEOPLE


Changing ideas on government

CHANGING IDEAS ON GOVERNMENT

SERVE SERVE

THE THE

RULER__________________________PEOPLE

EGYPT GREECE ROME MODERN DEMOCRACY

  • WHAT COULD OUR GOVERNMENT DO TO SERVE YOU BETTER?

Dark Ages Monarchy


Influential philosophers

INFLUENTIAL PHILOSOPHERS

  • JOHN LOCKE

    Proposed the idea of a social contract between men and government.

  • ROUSSEAU

    Influenced Locke, published “The Social Contract.”

  • MONTESQUIEU

    (1689-1755), wrote and spoke about the benefits of a separation of powers, within a government.


English influence 2 accepted principles

ENGLISH INFLUENCE2 ACCEPTED PRINCIPLES

  • LIMITED GOVERNMENT – Government restricted in what they can do

  • MAGNA CARTA, ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS, PETITION OF RIGHTS

  • REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT- Government should serve the will of the people

  • PARLIAMENT, HOUSE OF LORDS, HOUSE OF COMMONS


English influence english documents

ENGLISH INFLUENCEENGLISH DOCUMENTS

  • MAGNA CARTA

  • SOME RIGHTS FOR THE UPPER CLASS-1215

  • Trial by Jury, due process of law, protections against the taking of life, liberty, estate (property)

  • PETITION OF RIGHT

  • AN EMERGING PARLIAMENT DEMANDS MORE POWER – 1628

  • No martial law, no quartering troops w/o consent, no taxes w/o parliament’s consent


English influence english documents1

ENGLISH INFLUENCEENGLISH DOCUMENTS

  • ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS

  • GREAT RESTRICTIONS PUT ON THE MONARCHY (William and Mary) BY THE PARLIAMENT – 1689

  • Prohibited a standing army in peacetime, required all parliamentary elections to be free, no cruel and unusual punishment

  • King and Queen had to have consent of Parliament for most actions


Colonial experiences shaped by

COLONIAL EXPERIENCES SHAPED BY

  • REASONS FOR COLONIZATION

  • EXPERIENCE WHILE COLONISTS

  • IMPACT OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR


Colonial experiences shaping american values

COLONIAL EXPERIENCES“SHAPING AMERICAN VALUES”

  • REASONS TO COLONIZE

  • All 13 born out of its own circumstances

  • Desperate people looking for a chance, financial investment (employees), freedom of religion

  • All shaped by English origins

  • All created on a CHARTER (written grant of authority by King


Colonial experiences shaping american values1

COLONIAL EXPERIENCES“SHAPING AMERICAN VALUES”

  • EXPERIENCE WHILE COLONIES

  • Successes achieved through effort, cooperation, persistence, initiative, creativity


Colonial experiences

COLONIAL EXPERIENCES

  • First colony Virginia at Jamestown 1607.

  • Commercial venture

  • First colonists were employees of the Virginia Company (a private trading company)

  • Massachusetts settled by people seeking religious freedom

  • Georgia settled by debtors, as a refuge for the victims of England’s harsh poor laws.


Colonial experiences1

COLONIAL EXPERIENCES

  • Types of Colonies

  • By 1775, there were 8 Royal Colonies.

  • Subject to the direct control of the Crown.

  • NH, MA, NY, NJ, VA, NC, SC, GA


Colonial experiences2

COLONIAL EXPERIENCES

  • By 1775, there were 3 proprietary colonies:

  • Organized by a person whom the King had given a grant of land.

  • Gave the proprietor power over the colony.

  • Maryland (1682 to Lord Baltimore)

  • Pennsylvania (1681 to William Penn)

  • Delaware (1682 to William Penn)


Colonial experiences3

COLONIAL EXPERIENCES

  • 1662 and 1663 Connecticut and Rhode Island were charter colonies granted to the colonists themselves and largely self governing.


Colonial experiences4

COLONIAL EXPERIENCES

  • The colonial experience and other variables led the colonists to want to continue governing themselves

  • England wished to establish its control of the colonies


Colonial experiences5

COLONIAL EXPERIENCES

- The colonial experience helped to develop great pride, an appreciation of self, and a suspicion of government


French and indian war

FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR

  • Was part of the larger conflict known as the Seven Years' War, was a war fought in North America between 1754 and 1763.

  • The name French and Indian War refers to the two main enemies of the British.

  • The outcome was one of the most significant developments in a century of Anglo-French conflict.

  • The colonists fought as allies of the British and felt they played a significant role in driving France from North America.


French and indian war1

FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR

  • CHANGES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENGLAND AND THE COLONIES.

  • HOW DO THE COLONIES NOW SEE ENGLAND?

  • THE COLONIES SEE ENGLAND AS LESS NEEDED THAN EVER BEFORE.

  • HOW DOES ENGLAND NOW SEE THE COLONIES?

  • ENGLAND SEES THE COLONIES AS AN INVESTMENT THAT SHOULD NOW BE PAYING DIVIDENDS.


French and indian war2

French and Indian War

  • A Conflict of interests is looming

  • Why might the colonists feel less dependant on Britain after the French and Indian War?


Video america the story of us rebels

VIDEO-America; The Story of Us. “Rebels”

  • WHO WERE SOME OF THE FIRST PEOPLE TO ARRIVE IN AMERICA? WHY DID THEY COME?

  • WHY DID THE BRITISH COLONIZE AMERICA?

  • WHAT WAS THE PURPOSE OF THE DIFFERENT AMERICAN COLONIES?

  • WHAT MEN ARE CONSIDERED TO BE OUR FOUNDING FATHERS? (LIST THEM)

  • WHY DID THEY BECOME REVOLUTIONARIES?

  • WHAT WAS THE REACTION TO EVENTS LIKE THE STAMP ACT, AND BOSTON MASSACRE. WHY?

  • HOW DID THIS SET INTO MOTION THE EVENTS THAT WOULD LEAD TO REVOLUTION?


Albany plan for union 1754

Albany Plan for Union 1754

  • Benjamin Franklin

  • Could the Revolution been avoided?


The road to independence

THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE

  • STAMP ACT (1765) “No Taxation w/o representation”

    • British justify taxation with victory in French and Indian War

  • BOSTON MASSACRE (March 5, 1770)

  • TEA PARTY (December 16, 1773)

  • Revolution looming!


Revolution

REVOLUTION

  • HOW WOULD DEFINE REVOLUTION?

  • a sudden, complete or marked change in something

  • WHAT CHANGED DURING THE 1760 & 70’S

  • Colonist’s attitudes toward England and willingness to fight for independence.

  • WHAT EVENTS CONTRIBUTED TO THE GROWING DESIRE TO FIGHT FOR INDEPENDENCE?

  • STAMP ACT, BOSTON MASSACRE, BOSTON TEA PARY, DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE


The american revolution

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

  • Was a test of wills and commitment.

  • Not so much that General Washington and the Continental Army won great victories.

  • But rather they were determined and outlasted the British Army.


Essay questions

Essay Questions

  • The Declaration of Independence states that all men are endowed “with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”. Is this statement a fact or opinion? Explain.

  • What problems arose from changes in British policy toward the colonies in the 1760s?


Declaration of independence

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

  • THOMAS JEFFERSON, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston

  • IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776, The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America

  • United States of American is born!


Declaration of independence1

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

  • Look at the Declaration of Independence on pages 40-43. Answer the following questions.

  • Part 1 (Preamble). List any “enlightened” concepts you might find in the Preamble (first 2 paragraphs on Declaration).

  • Part 2 (Grievances). Read the list of grievances on pages 40-42. List the 5 grievances that you think are the most important. Briefly explain why you choose each of them.

  • Complete the entire Declaration of Independence, answer questions 1-8 on page 43. Do NOT write the questions. You DO NOT have to do “vocabulary”.


Declaration of independence2

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

  • PART 1

  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these ends it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government…


Declaration of independence3

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

PART 2

LIST OF GRIEVENCES


Declaration of independence4

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

PART 3

We, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States.


Question

Question?

If you lived during the 1760 and 1770’s, do you think you would have supported the call for revolution, why or why not and at what point?


Instructional goal

  • Worksheet CH 2, ST 2


A critical period

A CRITICAL PERIOD

  • JUST BEFORE AND AFTER THE REVOLUTION

  • Continental Congress

  • AMERICAN REVOLUTION BASICALLY ENDS WITH LORD CORNWALLIS’ SURRENDER AT YORKTOWN OCT. 1781

  • Articles of Confederation (Nov. 15, 1777)


Articles of confederation

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION

Creates only a legislative branch of government

No judicial, no executive branches or powers

  • STRENGTHS- Provides for the settlement of the west

  • WEAKNESSES- no tax, weak defense, no power to regulate trade between states, 1 vote per state (9-13 to pass laws), no executive or judicial branch


John hanson first president of the united states

John Hanson – First President of the United States?


Daniel shays

Daniel Shays


Shay s rebellion 1786

Shay’s Rebellion 1786

  • Shay’s Rebellion prompts need for stronger national government

    • Farmer’s rebelled against Mass. State Gov’t. Over huge debt, heavy taxes, & foreclosures

    • Federal Gov.t could not act, MA Gov.t needed help

    • Shay’s forces attack the Springfield federal armory (rifles)

    • Eventually rebellion was put down by Boston & Springfield Militia

    • 1,000 arrested


Instructional goal

  • Shays and dozens of others would be condemned to death.

  • He was later pardoned in 1788.


Problems that led to shays rebellion

Problems that led to Shays Rebellion

  • States taxed each others goods or even banned trade (like a tariff)

  • States printed their own money (often without anything backing it).

  • Economic chaos – prices soared, sound credit vanished, debt rose – public and private both went unpaid.

  • Violence broke out all over, not just MA.

  • Demand for stronger national government to solve problems rose.


Philadelphia convention

PHILADELPHIA CONVENTION

  • “Framers” of the US Constitution

  • 55 MEN

  • WHITE

  • EDUCATED

  • PHILADELPHIA

  • MEET ON MAY 25, 1787

  • EACH ARRIVED WITH GOALS AND RESPONSIBILITY TO SATISFY THE PEOPLE BACK HOME.


Method of decision making

METHOD OF DECISION MAKING

  • ALL WAS TO BE DONE IN SECRET

  • DISCUSSION, COMPROMISE, CONSENSUS

  • CONSENSUS – 100% AGREEMENT

  • WHAT ARE THE POSITIVES AND NEGATIVES RELATED TO THIS TYPE OF DECISION-MAKING?


Great debates

GREAT DEBATES

  • WHO WOULD HAVE POWER?

  • CENTRAL or LOCAL?

  • FEDERALISM (Division of Power)

  • Representation; BIG STATES or SMALL STATES?

  • BICAMERAL LEGISLATURE (Senate/House)

  • WITHIN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT?

  • SEP. OF POWERS/ CHECKS & BALANCES

  • PEOPLE AND THE GOVERNMENT?

  • BILL OF RIGHTS/AMENDMENTS


The philadelphia convention

The Philadelphia Convention

I.The Constitutional Convention Creates a new Constitution

a.Great Compromise – two house legislature created (Bicameral)

  • Upper house all state equal representation

  • Lower house based on population of state

    b.Three Fifths Compromise

  • In response to southern slave population


Federalism

Federalism

c.Separation of Powers

  • Distrust for powerful central government

  • Legislative, executive, and judicial

  • Checks and balances

  • Division of federal and state governments

    • Powers Granted – Example of Federalism

  • Bill of rights

    • To protect rights of citizens; majority rule vs. minority rights

    • 10 Amendments

      d.Government based on law not royal power or divine right. Religion never even mentioned. God, but no specific religion.


Us constitution

US Constitution

  • 7 Articles, 27 Amendments

  • Worlds Oldest and shortest Constitution

  • Article I – Powers of Congress

  • Article II – Powers of President

  • Article III – Judicial Powers

  • Article IV – Relationships among states

  • Article V – Adding an Amendment

  • Article VI – Public debts, supremacy of national government over state and local, oaths of office

  • Article VII – Provisions for ratification of Constitution


Instructional goal

Define

  • FEDERALISM-

  • a system of government that shares power between a central government and local governments.

  • BICAMERAL LEGISLATURE-

  • a 2 house legislature.

  • SEPERATION OF POWER-

  • The 3 functions of government are each the responsibility of a different branch

  • LIMITED GOVERNMENT-

  • The government is restricted in what it can do, by the will of the people.


Ratification

RATIFICATION

  • RATIFY TO FORMALLY APROVE A DOCUMENT.

  • GREAT DEBATES FINALLY COME TO CONCLUSIONS

  • BICAMERAL LEGISLATURE A GREAT EXAMPLE OF WHY SOME CALL THE CONSTITUTION…

    “A BUNDLE OF COMPROMISES”.


Ratification1

RATIFICATION

  • THE FINAL GREAT DEBATE

  • PROTECTION FROM A TOO POWERFULL GOVERNMENT

  • WHAT IS USED, TODAY, AS THE ULTIMATE PROTECTION FOR PEOPLE, OFTEN PEOPLE IN A MINORITY?

  • THE BILL OF RIGHTS


Quotes

Quotes

  • "A bill of rights is what the people are entitled to against every government on earth, general or particular; and what no just government should refuse, or rest on inferences." --Thomas Jefferson

    “The Constitution is not an instrument for the government to restrain the people, it is an instrument for the people to restrain the government — lest it come to dominate our lives and interests”.– PATRICK HENRY


Constitution

CONSTITUTION

  • ADOPTED SEPTEMBER 17, 1787

  • RATIFIED JUNE 21, 1788


Effects of ratification

EFFECTS OF RATIFICATION

  • LED TO THE EMERGENCE OF POLITICAL PARTIES

  • THE FEDERALISTS – G. WASHINGTON, A. HAMILTON, J. ADAMS, J. MADISON. Those that favored ratification. Supported strong central government.

  • Stressed weakness of Articles of Confed.

  • THE ANTI- FEDERALISTS – T. JEFFERSON, P. HENRY, J. HANCOCK, S. ADAMS Those who opposed ratification.

  • Stressed concern over increased power of government and lack of Bill of rights.

  • “I look upon that paper as the most fatal plan that could possibly be conceived to enslave a free people” – Patrick Henry

  • SENT TO THE STATES FOR APPROVAL.


Federalist papers

FEDERALIST PAPERS

  • LOGICAL ARGUMENTS WERE MADE

  • WHY A NEW GOVERNMENT WAS NEEDED

  • DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURE THEY DEVELOPED

  • WHY THE PEOPLE SHOULD RATIFY

  • MAIN AUTHORSALEXANDER HAMILTON, JAMES MADISON, JOHN JAY


Framers of the constitution project

“Framers” of the Constitution Project


Constitution1

CONSTITUTION

  • LOOK AT THE CHART ON PAGE 57.

  • WHICH STATES WERE THE MOST UNANIMOUS TO RATIFY?

  • WHICH STATE WAS THE FIRST TO RATIFY?

  • WHICH STATE WAS THE LAST TO RATIFY?

  • WHICH STATE’S ORIGINAL VOTE TO RATIFY WAS DEFEATED?

  • WHICH STATES RATIFICATION WAS WON BY ONLY A NARROW MARGIN?


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