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Presentation Outline. Introduction Company Profile Problem Statement Proposed solution Cost Analysis Deliverables Plan Conclusion. Members Talha Koc Murat Ozkan Ahmet Eris Halit Ates Mehmet Alp Ekici. Company Profile. Company Profile. Task Distribution

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PresentationOutline

  • Introduction

  • Company Profile

  • Problem Statement

  • Proposedsolution

  • CostAnalysis

  • Deliverables

  • Plan

  • Conclusion


  • Members

    • Talha Koc

    • Murat Ozkan

    • Ahmet Eris

    • Halit Ates

    • Mehmet Alp Ekici

Company Profile


Company Profile

TaskDistribution

  • ProgrammingTalha, Murat

  • PurchasingAlp, Ahmet

  • Power analysis&designHalit, Alp, Ahmet

  • RF analysis&designTalha

  • Mechanical analysis&designTalha

  • Control analysisHalit, Murat

  • Hardware TestingAll

  • R&D, DocumentationAll


Problem Statement

A vehicle that extracts the map of a closed path

  • Fitsinside a 1m by 1m square

  • 1 cm accuracy

  • No hard wiring

  • Thevehiclewill not start itsoperation on thepath

  • No overheadcamera

  • Area of map


Objectives

  • Inexpensive and high quality

  • Optimize costand time

  • High accuracy

    -Followingline

    -Mapextraction

  • Low power consumption


BlockDiagram of Solution


MAP EXTRACTION

>>LINE FOLLOWER

> SENSORS FOR MAPPING

> MAPPING ALGORITHM & DISPLAY

> DATA TRANSMISSION


PART LIST

  • SENSORS

    • COLOR SENSOR (3)

  • MOTORS

    • STEPPER MOTOR (2)

  • WHEELS

    • WHEEL (2)

    • CASTER


LINE FOLLOWER


PART LIST


COLOR SENSORS

  • Detection of line

  • Will be 3 - 5 mm above ground

  • Placed in a row; 2 cm front of centre line

  • Separated by 1 cm; left to right


MOTOR UNIT

STEPPER MOTORS (2)

WHEELS (2)

CASTER


MOTORS

  • Stepper Motors

    • Controlled by digital input

    • Can be driven slow

    • Can be used without gearbox

    • Low error fraction

    • Having no contact brushes increases life-time

  • Will be placed 2 cm behind centre line


WHEELS

  • Rubber wheel for high friction

  • Small size (r=1cm) for good resolution

  • Will be connected to motors separately

  • Like motors; placed 2 cm behind centre line

  • Will keep chassis 3-5 mm above ground


CASTER

  • To support robot

  • Easily moveable

  • To keep robot balanced

  • Placed on the middle, 2 cm away from front


MOTION ALGORITHM


GO FORWARD


TURN

TURN LEFT

TURN RIGHT


FORWARD+TURN

GO LEFT

GORIGHT


HEAD FORWARD


>LINE FOLLOWER

>>SENSORS FOR MAPPING

> MAPPING ALGORITHM & DISPLAY

> DATA TRANSMISSION

MAP EXTRACTION


Sensor data


Why optical mouse sensor?

Resolution is independent of encoder

Not dependent on wheel size

Installation is easy

Gives accurate incremental 2-D displacement


Features of optical mouse sensor

  • Optical navigation technology

  • High reliability

  • Low cost

  • High speed motion detector

  • High resolution


Reading Distance from OMS

Optical Mouse resolution-> 1600 counts per inch -> 630 counts per cm

Example: If we read 64 counts in register

this means that our car has moved 64/630 cm.

0,101cm


Why digital compass?

ADVANTAGES

  • Easy to implement

  • Less sensitive to vibrations

  • High resolution

  • Low power

    DISADVANTAGES

  • Requires calibration

  • Affected from magnetic material


Validity of data


MAP EXTRACTION

>LINE FOLLOWER

> SENSORS FOR MAPPİNG

> > MAPPING ALGORITHM&DISPLAY

> DATA TRANSMISSION


Mapping & Display

“Scientistdiscovertheworldthatexists; engineerscreatetheworldthatneverwas.”

(Theodore von Karman )


BlockDiagram


Localization – PositionEstimation

Q: Howtoestimaterobot’spose

withrespectto a global frame?

  • AbsolutePoseEstimation (GPS,Landmarks,Beacons)

  • RelativePoseEstimation (DeadReckoning)

  • AppropriateCombination of 1 & 2


DeadReckoning

  • Usedextensively in roboticapplications

    • ClassicalUse: Wheel Encoders

    • Advantages: Simple,cheap,easy

    • Drawback: Accumulation of errors

  • Solution:

    • Highpresicionopticalmousesensors (ADNS3080)

    • No kinematicerrors as in wheelencoders

    • Post filtering ( Kalman/MarkovFilters)


MappingAlgorithm

  • To model robotsnextposition,weneed:

    • ΔxandΔypositions

    • angleα°

    • Hardware:

      • OMS-> Δx& Δy

      • V2Xe-> α°


MappingAlgorithm(cont.)


AreaCalculation


ErrorConsiderations

  • Is Optical Mouse Sensor goodenoughtosatisfy +-1cm accuracy?

F. A. Kanburoglu, E. Kilic, M. Dolen, M., A. B. Koku, A Test SetupforEvaluatingLong-termMeasurementCharacteristics of Optical Mouse Sensors. "Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics, andIntelligentSystems", 1, (2007),


ErrorConsiderations (cont.)

  • Pose = Distance + Anglemeasurements

  • Thesemeasurmentshave ERRORS or NOISE included.

    Whatto do?

  • Kalman Filter -> SmartWay of processing data

  • Makesdistinctionbetweenreliable data & unreliable data

  • Smoothsouttheeffect of noise


Kalman FilterSimulationfor V2Xe

  • Assumption of noisy data with %2 error

  • Tested for hypothetical values in MATLAB

FirstOrder Kalman Filter ,R=2

FirstOrder Kalman Filter ,R=100


Display Software

  • The software on PC side:

    • Processing of the raw measurement data

    • Calculation of the next position according to the state equations

    • Apply filtering, if necessary

    • Display the new position on screen in simultaneously


Display Software

Testing:

  • MATLAB is used for map building,filtering

  • MATLAB Serial Port I/O Interface

  • The CAS Robot NavigationToolbox (GPL)

    Final Software:

  • Written in C++ byWh.Electronics

  • With a GUI showingmapbuildingprocess


Sample GUI (beta)


>LINE FOLLOWER

> SENSORS FOR MAPPİNG

> MAPPING ALGORITHM&DISPLAY

>> DATA TRANSMISSION

MAP EXTRACTION


RF Block Diagram

  • Data:

  • OMS Measurement

  • Digital Compass Measurement


WhyATX-34S & ARX-34 ?

  • HighFrequencyStability

  • LowCost (ATX->7TL, ARX->10TL)

  • LowBatteryConsumption(max 10mA)

  • EasyIntegrationwith PIC

  • GoodDocumentation


Microcontroller & ATX-34SConnection


ARX-34 & MAX232 Connection


GanttChart


CostAnalysis


Power Consumption

≈ 4-5 Watt

(≈45 Minutes)


Deliverables

  • Mobile Robot

  • User’s Manual

  • PC Connected Hardware

  • Warranty Document

  • Rechargeable Battery Pack


Thanks and Questions

?


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