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Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination. Guidance for Program Development and Technical Assessment. PART 2 – Municipal Employees. MORNING SESSION Basics of illicit discharges Components of an effective IDDE program Auditing existing resources and programs

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Illicit discharge detection and elimination

Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination

Guidance for Program Development and Technical Assessment

PART 2 – Municipal Employees

WAY MS4 IDDE


Topics covered

MORNING SESSION

Basics of illicit discharges

Components of an effective IDDE

program

Auditing existing resources and

programs

Establishing responsibility and legal

authority

Desktop assessment of ID potential

Preventing IDs

Developing program goals and

implementation strategies

Implementation considerations

AFTERNOON SESSION

Basics of illicit discharges

Components of an effective IDDE

program

Searching for ID problems in the field

Isolating and fixing individual IDs

IDDE program tracking and evaluation

Outfall Recon Inventory

Indicator monitoring

Tracking discharges to source

Techniques for fixing discharges

Topics Covered

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1 the basics of illicit discharges
1) The Basics of Illicit Discharges

  • Important terminology and key concepts

  • The importance of illicit discharges in urban water quality

  • Regulatory background for illicit discharges

  • Experience gained in Phase I

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Important terminology and key concepts
Important Terminology and Key Concepts

Illicit discharges are defined as:

  • A storm drain that has measurable flow during dry weather containing pollutants and/or pathogens.

  • Each illicit discharge has a unique frequency, composition and mode of entry in the storm drain system.

  • Illicit discharges are frequently caused when the sewage disposal system interacts with the storm drain system.

  • Illicit discharges of other pollutants are produced from specific source areas and operations known as “generating sites.”

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2 components of an effective idde program
2) Components of an Effective IDDE Program

  • Go after continuous sewage discharges first

  • Put together an interdisciplinary and interdepartmental IDDE team

  • Educate everybody about illicit discharges

  • Understand your infrastructure

  • Walk all of your streams in the first permit cycle

  • Use GPS to create your outfall map

  • Understand your discharges before developing a monitoring plan

  • Consider establishing an ambient (in-stream) chemical and/or biological monitoring program

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Components of an effective idde program cont
Components of an Effective IDDE Program (cont.)

9) Utilize a simple outfall tracking system to organize all your

IDDE data

  • Outsource some IDDE functions to local watershed groups

  • Utilize a hotline as an education and detection tool

  • Cross-train all local inspectors to recognize discharges and report them for enforcement

  • Target your precious storm water education dollars

  • Stress public health and safety benefits of sewage-free streams

  • Calibrate your program resources to the magnitude of the illicit discharge problem

  • Think of discharge prevention as a tool of watershed restoration

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3 searching for illicit discharge problems in the field
3) Searching for Illicit Discharge Problems in the Field

  • Overview of Searching for

    Illicit Discharge Problems in the Field

    • The Outfall Reconnaissance Inventory (ORI)

    • Interpreting ORI Data

    • Design and Implementation of an Indicator Monitoring Strategy

    • Field and Lab Safety Considerations

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Overview of searching for illicit discharge problems in the field
Overview of Searching for Illicit Discharge Problems in the Field

  • Purpose: Rapid field screening of outfalls in priority

    subwatersheds followed by indicator monitoring at

    suspect outfalls to characterize flow types and trace

    sources.

  • Method(s): The primary field screening tool is the Outfall

    Reconnaissance Inventory (ORI) and a map.

  • Desired Product or Outcome(s):

    • An updated map of the locations of all outfalls within the MS4

    • Incorporation ORI data into the outfall inventory/tracking system

    • Design and implementation of indicator monitoring strategy to test

      suspect outfalls

    • Creation of local pollution “fingerprint” library for discharge types

    • Evaluate significance and distribution of IDPs in the community

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Interpreting ori data
Interpreting ORI Data Field

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Field and lab safety considerations
Field and Lab Safety Considerations Strategy

  • Program managers should take

    into account and fully plan for all

    necessary field and laboratory

    safety precautions.

  • Most communities already have

    well established standard

    operating procedures they follow

    when conducting field and lab

    work, and these typically provide

    an excellent starting point for IDDE

    programs.

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4 isolating and fixing individual illicit discharges
4) Isolating and Fixing Individual Strategy Illicit Discharges

  • Overview of Isolating and Fixing Individual Illicit Discharges

  • Isolating Illicit Discharges

  • Fixing Illicit Discharges

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Overview of isolating and fixing individual illicit discharges

Methods: Strategy

Pollution reporting hotline

Drainage area investigations

Trunk investigations

On-site discharge investigations

Correction and enforcement

Desired Products or

Outcomes:

Improved water quality

Increased homeowner and business awareness about pollution prevention

Maintenance of a tracking system to document repairs and identify repeat offenders

Overview of Isolating and Fixing Individual Illicit Discharges

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Isolating illicit discharges
Isolating Illicit Discharges Strategy

  • Illicit Discharge

    Investigations:

    • Storm drain network investigations

    • Drainage area investigations

    • On-site investigations

    • Septic system investigations

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Fixing illicit discharges
Fixing Illicit Discharges Strategy

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5 idde program tracking and evaluation
5) IDDE Program Tracking and Strategy Evaluation

  • Overview of Program Evaluation

  • IDDE Program Tracking

  • Evaluate the Program

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Overview of program evaluation
Overview of Program Evaluation Strategy

  • Purpose:

    • This last program component addresses the ongoing management of the IDDE program and reviews progress made in meeting the measurable program goals established earlier in the permit cycle.

  • Method(s):

    • The primary method is frequent maintenance and analysis of the IDDE tracking system developed as part of the program.

  • Desired Product or Outcome(s):

    • Updated tracking database and annual report with summary of progress to date, findings, recommendations for program revisions, and work plan (including milestones and goals) for the upcoming year.

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Idde program tracking
IDDE Program Tracking Strategy

  • Geospatial coordinates of each outfall location

  • The subwatershed and watershed address

  • Any supporting information about contributing land use

  • Diameter and physical characteristics of the outfall

  • Outfall Reconnaissance Inventory (ORI) data

  • Any accompanying digital photos

  • Any follow-up monitoring at outfall or further up the pipe

  • Any hotline complaints logged and local response

  • Status and disposition of any enforcement actions

  • Maintenance and inspection data

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Evaluate the program
Evaluate the Program Strategy

  • Updated mapping to reflect outfalls located during ORI

  • Surveyed stream reaches with locations of obvious, suspect, and potential discharges, and locations of dumping sites

  • Indicator sampling results for specific streams, outfalls and storm drains

  • Frequency of hotline use and associated number of “hits” or confirmed illicit discharges

  • Costs for each of the eight program components (e.g., office, field, lab, education, enforcement, etc.)

  • Number of discharges corrected

  • Status and disposition of enforcement actions

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6 the outfall reconnaissance inventory ori
6) The Outfall Reconnaissance Strategy Inventory (ORI)

  • Getting Started

  • Desktop Analysis to Support the ORI

  • Completing the ORI

  • Section 1- Background Data

  • Section 2- Outfall Description

  • Section 3- Quantitative Characterization for Flowing Outfalls

  • Section 4- Physical Indicators for Flowing Outfalls Only

  • Section 5- Physical Indicators for Both Flowing and Non-Flowing Outfalls

  • Section 6-8 Initial Outfall Designation and Actions

  • Customizing the ORI for Your Community

  • Interpreting ORI Data

  • Budgeting and Scoping the ORI

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Getting started
Getting Started Strategy

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Desktop analysis to support the ori
Desktop Analysis to Support the ORI Strategy

  • Survey reaches should be established above the confluence of streams and between road crossings that serve as a convenient access point.

  • Survey reaches should be defined at the transition between major changes in land use in the stream corridor (e.g. forested land to commercial area).

  • Survey reaches should generally be limited to a quarter mile or less in length. Survey reaches in lightly developed subwatersheds can be longer than those in more developed subwatersheds, particularly if uniform stream corridor conditions are expected throughout the survey reach.

  • Access through private or public property should be considered when delineating survey reaches as permission may be required.

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Completing the ori
Completing the ORI Strategy

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Ori section 1 background data
ORI Section 1- Background Data Strategy

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Ori section 2 outfall description
ORI Section 2- Outfall Description Strategy

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Ori sheet section 5 physical indicators for both flowing and non flowing outfalls
ORI Sheet Section 5 - Physical Indicators for Both Flowing and Non-Flowing Outfalls

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Ori section 6 8 initial outfall designation and actions
ORI Section 6-8 Initial Outfall Designation and Actions and Non-Flowing Outfalls

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Customizing the ori for your community
Customizing the ORI for Your Community and Non-Flowing Outfalls

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Interpreting ori data1
Interpreting ORI Data and Non-Flowing Outfalls

  • Methods to compile, organize and interpret ORI data, including:

    • Basic Data Management and Quality Control

    • Outfall Classification

    • Simple Suspect Outfall Counts

    • Mapping ORI Data

    • Subwatershed and Reach Screening

    • Characterizing IDDE Problems at the Community Level

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Budgeting and scoping the ori
Budgeting and Scoping the ORI and Non-Flowing Outfalls

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7 indicator monitoring
7) Indicator Monitoring and Non-Flowing Outfalls

  • Indicator Parameters to Identify Illicit Discharges

  • Sample Collection Considerations

  • Methods to Analyze Indicator Samples

  • Techniques to Interpret Indicator Data

  • The Chemical Library

  • Special Monitoring Techniques for Intermittent or Transitory Discharges

  • Monitoring of Stream Quality During Dry Weather

  • The Costs of Indicator Monitoring

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Indicator parameters to identify illicit discharges

Biological and Non-Flowing Outfalls

E. coli, enterococi, and total coliform

Chemical

Ammonia

Boron

Chlorine

Fluoride

Nitrogen

Phosphorus

Potassium

Physical

Color

Conductivity

Detergents

Fluorescence

Hardness

pH

Surface Tension

Surfactants

Turbidity

Indicator Parameters to Identify Illicit Discharges

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Sample collection considerations
Sample Collection Considerations and Non-Flowing Outfalls

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Methods to analyze indicator samples
Methods to Analyze Indicator Samples and Non-Flowing Outfalls

  • In-field analysis

  • Office analysis

  • Laboratory analysis

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Techniques to interpret indicator data
Techniques to Interpret Indicator Data and Non-Flowing Outfalls

  • Methods of indicator parameters that may be

    used to confirm discharges and identify flow types:

    • Flow Chart Method (recommended)

    • Single Parameter Screening

    • Industrial Flow Benchmarks

    • Chemical Mass Balance Model (CMBM)

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The chemical library
The Chemical Library and Non-Flowing Outfalls

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Special monitoring techniques for intermittent or transitory discharges
Special Monitoring Techniques for Intermittent or Transitory Discharges

  • Techniques for Monitoring Intermittent Discharges

    • Odd hours monitoring

    • Optical brightener monitoring traps

    • Caulk dams

    • Pool sampling

    • Toxicity monitoring

  • Transitory discharges, such as spills and illegal dumping, are primarily sampled to assign legal responsibility for enforcement actions or to reinforce ongoing pollution prevention education efforts.

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Monitoring of stream quality during dry weather
Monitoring of Stream Quality During DischargesDry Weather

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The costs of indicator monitoring
The Costs of Indicator Monitoring Discharges

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8 tracking discharges to a source
8) Tracking Discharges to A Discharges Source

  • Storm Drain Network Investigations

  • Drainage Area Investigations

  • On-site Investigations

  • Septic System Investigations

  • The Cost to Trace Discharge Sources

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Storm drain network investigations
Storm Drain Network Investigations Discharges

  • Option 1 : Move up the Trunk

  • Option 2: Split the storm drain network

  • Option 3: Move down the storm drain network

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Drainage area investigations
Drainage Area Investigations Discharges

  • Rapid windshield survey

  • Detailed drainage area investigations

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On site investigations
On-site Investigations Discharges

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Septic system investigations
Septic System Investigations Discharges

  • On-Site Investigations

    • Homeowner survey

    • Surface conditions analysis

    • Detailed system inspection

  • Off-Site Investigations

    • Infrared imagery

    • Infrared thermography

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The cost to trace discharge sources
The Cost to Trace Discharge Sources Discharges

  • Costs for Dye, Video and Smoke Testing

    • Dye $900 per facility

    • Video $1-$2 foot

    • Smoke $30-$60 doz candles; $1000-$2000 blower

  • Costs for Septic System Investigations

    • Survey $25 per home (1-hour)

    • Detailed system inspection $250-$400 per system

  • Other Tools

    • Aerial infrared thermography $150-$400 stream mile

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9 techniques to fix discharges

Service Lateral Disconnection/ Reconnection Discharges

Cleaning

Excavation and Replacement

Manhole Repair

Corrosion Control Coating

Grouting

Pipe Bursting

Slip Lining

Fold and Formed Pipe

Inversion Lining

9) Techniques to Fix Discharges

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References
References Discharges

  • Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination – A Guidance Manual for Program Development and Technical Assessment, Center for Watershed Protection (October 2004)

  • MS4 Information Resource CD – Folder: Illicit Discharge Detection & Elimination, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (2003)

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Appendices
Appendices Discharges

  • Appendix A: Generating Sites, Storm Water Regulatory Status, and

    Discharge Potential

  • Appendix B: Model Illicit Discharge and Connection Ordinance

  • Appendix C: Six Steps to Establishing a Hotline and Reporting and Tracking

    System

  • Appendix D: Outfall Reconnaissance Inventory Field Sheet

  • Appendix E: Flow Type Data from Tuscaloosa and Birmingham

  • Appendix F: Laboratory Analytical Procedures for Outfall Monitoring

  • Appendix G: Sampling Protocol Considerations

  • Appendix H: Two Alternative Flow Charts

  • Appendix I: User’s Guide for the Chemical Mass Balance Model (CMBM)

    Version 1.0

  • Appendix J: Using the Chemical Library to Determine the Utility of Boron as

    an Indicator of Illicit Discharges

  • Appendix K: Specific Considerations for Industrial Sources of Inappropriate

    Pollutant Entries to the Storm Drainage System

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End part 2
End Part 2 Discharges

  • Questions

  • IDDE Training Modules may be found online

    www.watershedsyork.org Education page under Workshops

  • For more information contact:

    • Adam Smith & Derek Rinaldo, C.S. Davidson, Inc. (717) 846-4805

    • Andrew Miller Esq., MPL-Law (717) 845-1524 x 112

    • Gary Peacock, YCCD (717) 840-7687

      Thank you!

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